Saturday, January 31, 2009

Solaris ZFS CBT Notes

###Zettabyte File Sysstem (ZFS)###

Key Features:

1. 256 quadrillion zettabytes (terabytese - petabytes - exabytes - zettabytes (1024 exabytes)
2. RAID-0/1 & RAID-Z (RAID-5 with enhancements) (2- required virtual devices)
3. Snapshots (point in time backup) - read-only copies of file systems or volumes.
4. Creates volumes
5. Uses storage pools to manage storage - aggregates virtual devices
6. File systems attached to pools groe dynamically as storage is added.
7. File systems may span multiple physical disks
8. ZFS is transactional
9. Pools & file systems are auto-mounted. No need to maintain /etc/vfstab.
10. Supports file system hierarchies: /pool1/{home(5GB),var(10GB),etc.}
11. Supports reservation of storage: /pool1/{home(10GB),var}
12. Provides a secure web-based management tool - https://localhost:6789/zfs

###ZFS - CLI###
zpool list - lists know pools
zpool create pool_name(alphanumeric,_,-,;,.)

1. mirror
2. raidz

zpool create pool_name device_name1, device_name2, device_name3, etc.
zpool create pool1 c0t1d0


zpool create pool1 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0

ZFS Pool Statuses:
3. FAULTED - device inaccessible

zfs list - returns ZFS dataset info.
zfs mount - returns pools and mount points
zpool status - returns virtual devices that constitute pools
zpool status -v pool_name - to see specific pool

Note: ZFS requires a minimum of 128MB virtual device to create pool.

zpool destroy pool1 - Destroys pool and associated file systems

###Create file systems within pool1###
zfs create pool1/home - creates files system named 'home' in pool1

Note: Defaulr action of 'zfs create pool1/home' assigns all storage available to 'pool1', to 'pool1/home'

###Set quota on existing file system##
zfs set quota=10G pool1/home

###Create user-based file system beneath pool1/home###
zfs create pool1/home/unixcbt

Note: ZFS inherits properties from immediate ancestor

zfs get -r compression pool1 - return compressiong property for file system associated with 'pool1'

###Rename File System###
zfs rename pool1/home/unixcbt pool1/home/unixcbt2

###Extending dynamically, pool storage###
zpool add pool1 c0t2d0

###ZFS Redundancy/Replication###
1. Mirroring - RAID-1
2. RAID-5 - RAID-Z

Virtual Devices:
1. c0t1d0 - 36GB
2. c0t2d0 - 36GB

Note: Redundancy/Replicationis associated directly with the pool.

zpool create -f poolmirror1 mirror c0t1d0 c0t2d0
zpool create -f poolmirror1 raidz c0t1d0 c0t2d0

###ZFS Snapshots###


1. Read-only copies of volumes or file systems
2. Use no additional space, initially

zfs list -t snapshot - returns available snapshots

zfs snapshot poolraidz1/home@homesnap1
zfs destroy poolraidz1/home@homesnap1
zfs rename poolraidz1/home@homesnap3 poolraidz1/home@homesnapnewname
zfs rollback -f poolraidz1/home@homesnapnewname

###ZFS Clones###

1.Writable file systems or volumes
2. Linked to a snapshot
3. Clone can be sstored anywhere in ZFS hierarchy

zfs clone poolraidz1/home@homenewsnap poolraidz1/home/homeclone1

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Friday, January 30, 2009

Sheldon Cooper Quotations - Season 1

Sheldon gets a lot of the best lines on The Big Bang Theory. We've compiled some of his most memorable quotes from Season 1 below.

Season 1, Episode 1 (Pilot)Well, today we tried masturbating for money.
Yes, it tells us that you participate in the mass cultural delusion that the sun’s apparent position relative to arbitrarily defined constellations at the time of your birth somehow affects your personality.
You did not "break up" with Joyce Kim. She defected to North Korea.
Season 1, Episode 2 (The Big Bran Hypothesis)Ah gravity, thou art a heartless bitch.
Explain to me an organizational system where a tray of flatware on a couch is valid. I'm just inferring that this is a couch, because the evidence suggests the coffee table is having a tiny garage sale.
I am truly sorry for what happened last night. I take full responsibility and I hope it won’t color your opinion of Leonard, who is not only a wonderful guy but also, I hear, a gentle and thorough lover.
Season 1, Episode 3 (The Fuzzy Boots Corollary)At least now you can retrieve the black box from the twisted smoldering wreckage that was once your fantasy of dating her and analyze the data so that you don't crash into geek mountain again.
I think that you have as much of a chance of having a sexual relationship with Penny as the Hubble Telescope does of discovering at the center of every black hole is little man with a flashlight searching for a circuit breaker.
There's always the possibility that alcohol and poor judgment on her part might lead to a nice romantic evening.
Season 1, Episode 4 (The Luminous Fish Effect)There wouldn't have been any ass kickings if that stupid death ray had worked.

Oh, I'm sorry. Did I insult you? Is your body mass somehow tied into your self worth?

Season 1, Episode 5 (The Hamburger Postulate)Do you realize I may have to share a Nobel Prize with your booty call?
Of course I'm listening. Blah blah, hopeless Penny delusion, blah blah blah.
Season 1, Episode 7 (The Dumpling Paradox)I'll watch the last 24 minutes of Doctor Who, although at this point it's more like Doctor Why Bother.
No, I’m going to ask him to choose between sex and Halo 3. As far as I know, sex has not been upgraded to include high-def graphics and enhanced weapon systems.
Season 1, Episode 8 (The Grasshopper Experiment)Damn you,
I understand, but it was between you and the Museum of Natural History, and frankly, you don't have dinosaurs.
Season 1, Episode 9 (The Cooper-Hofstadter Polarization)Forget your suit. Look at my arms flailing. I'm like a flamingo on Ritalin.
Well, there's always the possibility that a trash can spontaneously formed around the letter, but Occam's Razor would suggest that someone threw it out.
Season 1, Episode 10 (The Loobenfeld Decay)I don’t guess. As a scientist I reach conclusions based on observation and experimentation. Although, as I’m saying this, it occurs to me that you may have been employing a rhetorical device, rendering my response moot.
Artificial intelligences do not have teen fetishes.
Season 1, Episode 11 (The Pancake Batter Anomaly)We have no idea what pathogen Typhoid Penny’s introduced into our environment. And having never been to Nebraska I’m relatively certain that I have no Corn Husking antibodies.
Obviously you're not well-suited for three-dimensional chess. Perhaps three-dimensional Candyland would be your speed.
Season 1, Episode 12 (The Jerusalem Duality)While Mr. Kim, by virtue of youth and naiveté, has fallen prey to the inexplicable need for human contact, let me step in and assure you that my research will go on uninterrupted, and that social relationships will continue to baffle and repulse me.
Engineering: where the noble semi-skilled laborers execute the vision of those who think and dream. Hello, Ooompa-Loompas of science.
Season 1, Episode 13 (The Bat Jar Conjecture)Yes, well, I’m polymerized tree sap and you’re an inorganic adhesive, so whatever verbal projectile you launch in my direction is reflected off of me, returns to its original trajectory and adheres to you.
Would you ask Picasso to play Pictionary? Would you ask Noah Webster to play Boggle? Would you ask Jacques Cousteau to play Go Fish?
At this point I should inform you that I intend to form my own team and destroy the molecular bonds that bind your very matter together and reduce the resulting particular chaos to tears.
One more thing. It’s on, bitch.
Season 1, Episode 14 (The Nerdvana Annihilation)Dibs does not apply in a bidding war.
In a Venn diagram, that would be an individual located at the intersection of the sets “no longer want my Time Machine” and “need 800 dollars”.
It only moves in time. It would be worse than useless in a swamp.
I disagree. Your inability to successfully woo Penny long predates your acquisition of the time machine. That failure clearly stands on its own.
Season 1, Episode 15 (The Shiksa Indeterminacy)They were not “friends”. They were imaginary colleagues.
Season 1, Episode 16 (The Peanut Reaction)What twelve year old boy wants a motorized dirt bike?
What computer do you have? And please don't say "a white one."
Season 1, Episode 17 (The Tangerine Factor)Actually, I thought the first two renditions were far more compelling. Previously, I felt sympathy for the Leonard character. Now I just find him to be whiny and annoying.
Oxen are in my bed! Many, many oxen!

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Duplicating Disks (Sun)

It is easy to duplicate a disk with the same geometry (cylinders, heads, sectors) with the dd command. In the following example, I will duplicate boot disk c0t0d0 with c0t1d0 on a Solaris system. Of course, this is not the same as mirroring the boot disk.

The dd command's bit-for-bit copy includes the partition table and boot block, so duplicating the partition table with prtvtoc and making the disk bootable with installboot is not necessary.

# format < /dev/null
Searching for disks...done

0. c0t0d0
1. c0t1d0
Specify disk (enter its number):

1. Make a bit-for-bit copy of the source disk to the destination disk with dd. Use a 1 megabyte blocksize instead of the 512 byte default to speed up the operation.
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 of=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2 bs=1024k

2. Change the /etc/vfstab file on the duplicate boot disk to reflect the correct SCSI ID.

mkdir /tmp/mnt
mount /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0 /tmp/mnt
vi /tmp/mnt/etc/vfstab

Change references of c0t0d0 to c0t1d0:


umount /tmp/mnt

3. Test booting off the duplicate boot disk (assuming disk1 is the correct Open Boot Prompt device alias for c0t1d0s0).

reboot -- disk1

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Thursday, January 29, 2009

Swap Space Management

A standard Solaris swap space partition that is not under the control of volume management software cannot be resized. However, you can add swap space by using free space from another partition.

To create a swapfile:
mkfile size swapfile

Here is an example to create an additional 512M swapfile:
mkfile 512M /files0/swapfile

Add the swapfile to system swap space:
swap -a /files0/swapfile

Add an /etc/vfstab entry to have the swapfile added after each reboot:
/files0/swapfile - - swap - no -

Make sure to manually remove this /etc/vfstab entry if you ever delete the additional swapfile with swap -d.

Additional swap commands

List swap space:
swap -l

List swap space statistics:
swap -s

Delete a swapfile:
swap -d swapfile

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Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Cabal Bladers FINAL SKILLS

Credits to CabalWiki:


•Concentration (Lv.20) ADDs: 400ATK RATE - Costs: 8,760Alz Obtain at: Apprentice(0)

•Iron Skin (Lv.20) ADDs: 100HP and 39DEF - Costs: 312,500Alz Obtain at: Expert(0)

•Mirage Step (Lv.20) ADDs: 345DEF RATE - Costs: 502,900Alz Obtain at: A.Expert(0)

•Aura Barrier (Lv.20) ADDs: 100HP and 58DEF - Costs: 1,680,000Alz Obtain at: Master(0)

•Soul Blade (Lv.20) ADDs: 74ATK - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: G.Master(0)

•Art of Fierceness (Lv.20) ADDs: 400DMG - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: Completer(0)

•Intense Blade (Lv.20) ADDs: 25% Sword Skill Amp - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: Transcender(0)

•Instant Immunity (Lv.20)
ADDs: Resist unable to move: +100%
Resist Down: +100%
Resist Knock Back: +100%
Resist Stun: +100% - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: G.Master(0)

•Intuition (Lv.20) ADDs: 90% Flee Rate - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: Completer(0)


•Field of Fear (Lv.20) : -150DEF and -500DEF RATE - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: Transcender(0)


•Assault (Lv.18) ADD ATK: +118.90 - Costs: 312,500Alz Obtain at: Expert(0)

•Vital Interfere (Lv.12) ADD ATK: +71.80 - Costs: 1,680,000Alz Obtain at: Master(0)

•Double Slash (Lv.20) ADD ATK: +58.40 - Costs: 8,760Alz Obtain at: Apprentice(0)

•Double Rising (Lv.20) ADD ATK: +146.70 - Costs: 98,400Alz Obtain at: Regular(18)

•Storm Grind (Lv.20) ADD ATK: +288.60 - Costs: 415,200Alz Obtain at: Expert(50)

•Twin Moon Slash (Lv.9) ADD ATK: +211.30 - Costs: 1,680,000Alz Obtain at: Master(0)

•Lightning Slash (Lv.9) ADD ATK: +799.50 - Costs: 3,714,500Alz Obtain at: Completer(0)

•Blade Scud (Lv.9) ADD ATK: +799.50 - Costs: 3,639,700Alz Obtain at: G.Master(0)

•Force Kick (Lv.9) ADD ATK: +118.50 - Costs: 458,000Alz Obtain at: Expert(0)

•Dash (Lv.9) - Costs: 8,760Alz Obtain at: Apprentice(0)

•Fade Step (Lv.9) - Costs: 800Alz Obtain at: Novice(0)


•Vitality Mastery (Lv.10) ADDs: 310HP(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK

•Offensive Sense (Lv.8) ADDs: 24ATK(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK

•Defensive Sense (Lv.8) ADDs: 23DEF(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK

•Impact Control (Lv.3) ADDs: 75ATK(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK

•Damage Absorb (Lv.3) ADDs: 29DEF(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK

•Sixth Sense (Lv.3) ADDs: 420DEF RATE(+10% per rank ng MAGIC) - Costs: Price may vary every RANK


•Regeneration (Lv.4) ADDs : 6HP Restore(per 2sec) - Costs: 800Alz Obtain at: Novice(0)

•Magic Arrow (Lv.9) ADDs : 46.50ATK - Costs: 800Alz Obtain at: Novice(0)

•Terra Arrow (Lv.9) ADDs : 42.10ATK - Costs: 5,800Alz Obtain at: Novice(0)

•Lightning Arrow (Lv.9) ADDs : 57.90ATK - Costs: 9,750Alz Obtain at: Novice(0)

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Solaris Zones CBT Notes

###Solaris Zones###


1. Virtualization - i.e. VMWare
2. Solaris Zones can host only instances of Solaris. Not other OSs.
3. Limit of 8192 zones per Solaris host
4. Primary zone (global) has access to ALL zones
5. Non-global zones, do NOT have access to other non-global zone
6. Default non-global zones derive packages from global zone
7. Program isolation - zone1(Apache), zone2(MySQL)
8. Provides 'z' commands to manage zones: zlogin, zonename, zoneadm, zonecfg

###Features of Global Zone###

1. Solaris ALWAYS boots(cold/warm) to the global zone
2. Knows about ALL hardware devices attached to the system
3. Knows about ALL non-global zones

###Features of NON-GLOBAL zones###

1. Installed at a location on the filesystem of the GLOBAL zone 'zone root path' /export/home/zones/{zone1,zone2,zone3,...}
2. Share packages with GLOBAL zone
3. Manage distinct hostname and tables files
4. Cannot communicate with other non-global zones by default. NIC must be used, which means, use standard network AIP (TCP)
5. GLOBAL zone admin can delegate non-global zone administration

###Zone Configuration###

Use: zonecfg - to configure zones
Note: zonecfg can be run: interactively, non-interactively, command-file modes

Requirements for non-global zones:
1. hostaname
2. zone root path. i.e /export/home/zones/testzone1
3. IP address - bound to logical or physical interface

Zone Types:
1. Sparses Root Zones - share key files with global zone
2. Whole Root Zones - require more storage

Steps for configuring non-global zone:

1. mkdir /export/home/zones/testzone1 && chmod 700 /export/home/zones/testzone1
2. zonecfg -z testzone1 <-- interactive mode
3. execute create
4. set zonepath=/export/home/zones/testzone1 - sets root of zone
5. add net; set address=
6. set physical-e1000g0
7. (optional) set autoboot=true - testzone1 will be started when system boots
8. (optional) add attr; set name=comment;set type=string;set value="TestZone1"
9. verify zone - verifies zone for errors
10. commit changes - commit

11. Zone Installation - zoneadm -z testzone1 install - places zone, 'testzone1' into 'installed' state. NOT ready for production.

12.zoneadm -z testzone1 boot - boots the zone, changing it's state.

###Zlogin -is used to login to zones###
Note: each non-global zone maintains a console. Use 'zlogin -C zonename' afte installing zone to complete zone configuration

Note: Zlogin permits login to non-global zone via the following:
1. Interactive - i.e. zlogin -ll username zonename
2. Non-intractive - zlogin options command
3. Console mode - zlogin -C zonename
4. Safe mode - zlogin -S

zoneadm -z testzone1 reboot - reboots the zone
zlogin testzone1 shutdown - shutdowns the zone

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Tuesday, January 27, 2009

SRware Iron? Huh...

Ok, I was at the office and trying to download and install Google Chrome in my office laptop and guess what? My antivirus kept deleting it 'coz it sees the install file as a virus (which I know is not and please don't ask me what the antivirus was :)).

So it led me to this software, the site that came out of google said it is a Google Chrome clone but actually they came from the same opensource project called Chromium.

Free application Iron is a slightly modified version of the Chromium source of Google Chrome that removes components of Chrome that report your usage habits to Google. In practice, that means it removes your unique user ID, doesn't send user-specific info to Google, skips crash reporting, and doesn't check with Google for updates. Some features—like crash reporting and update checks—are built into most browsers anyway, but if you're already squeamish with the amount of your information Google already has on its servers, the extra layer of privacy Iron offers might be up your alley.

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Replacing a failed disk with DiskSuite

Example one

In this example, the boot disk mirror c0t1d0 failed. All submirrors on c0t1d0 were placed in "maintenance" state, so no reads or writes were occurring on the disk. The replacement disk has identical geometry of boot disk c0t0d0.

1. Delete any state database replicas from the failed disk. A "W" in metadb output indicates replica device write errors.

# metadb
flags first blk block count
a m p luo 16 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6
a p luo 8208 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6
W p l 16 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s6
W p l 8208 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s6

# metadb -d /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s6
# metadb
flags first blk block count
a m p luo 16 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6
a p luo 8208 8192 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6

2. Replace the failed disk.

3. Copy the partition table from the good disk to the replacement disk.
# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard -s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2

4. Create state database replicas on the replacement disk.
# metadb -a -c 2 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s6

5. Determine which submirrors need to be resynchronized.

# metastat | grep 'Invoke: metareplace'
Invoke: metareplace d30 c0t1d0s0
Invoke: metareplace d31 c0t1d0s1
Invoke: metareplace d33 c0t1d0s3
Invoke: metareplace d34 c0t1d0s4
Invoke: metareplace d35 c0t1d0s5

6. Resynchronize the submirrors.

# ./metareplace -e d30 c0t1d0s0
d30: device c0t1d0s0 is enabled
# ./metareplace -e d31 c0t1d0s1
d31: device c0t1d0s1 is enabled
# ./metareplace -e d33 c0t1d0s3
d32: device c0t1d0s3 is enabled
# ./metareplace -e d34 c0t1d0s4
d33: device c0t1d0s4 is enabled
# ./metareplace -e d35 c0t1d0s5
d34: device c0t1d0s5 is enabled

You can monitor the resynchronization progress with metastat.

Example two

In this example, the mirror disk is failing, but one of its submirrors is in an Okay state.

# format
Searching for disks...done

0. c1t0d0
1. c1t1d0

# metastat
d20: Submirror of d0
State: Needs maintenance
Invoke: metareplace d0 c1t1d0s0
Size: 3073896 blocks
Stripe 0:
Device Start Block Dbase State Hot Spare
c1t1d0s0 0 No Maintenance

d21: Submirror of d1
State: Okay
Size: 8389656 blocks
Stripe 0:
Device Start Block Dbase State Hot Spare
c1t1d0s1 0 No Okay

d23: Submirror of d3
State: Needs maintenance
Invoke: metareplace d3 c1t1d0s3
Size: 525798 blocks
Stripe 0:
Device Start Block Dbase State Hot Spare
c1t1d0s3 0 No Maintenance

d24: Submirror of d4
State: Needs maintenance
Invoke: metareplace d4 c1t1d0s4
Size: 59114718 blocks
Stripe 0:
Device Start Block Dbase State Hot Spare
c1t1d0s4 0 No Maintenance

Since submirror d21 is still in an Okay state, it must be detached from the mirror.

# metadetach d1 d21
d1: submirror d21 is detached

Remaining steps:

1. Delete the state databases from the failed disk.
2. Replace the failed disk.
3. Duplicate the partition table from the good disk to the new disk.
4. Re-create the state databases.
5. Run metareplace on the metadevices that were in "Needs maintenance" state (i.e., d20, d23, and d24 in this example).
6. Run metattach on the detached metadevices (i.e., d21 in this example).

More information:
SUMMARY: RE Replacing mirrored Sun system disk

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Monday, January 26, 2009

Which Solaris cluster is installed?

To determine which "cluster" of the Solaris Operating Environment you have installed:
$ cat /var/sadm/system/admin/CLUSTER

Explanation of value returned:

SUNWCrnet Reduced Networking Core System Support
SUNWCreq Core System Support
SUNWCuser End User System Support
SUNWCprog Developer System Support
SUNWCall Entire Distribution
SUNWCXall Entire Distribution plus OEM support

To list the packages in each of the clusters above, view the /var/sadm/system/admin/.clustertoc file. This file also contains descriptions of the clusters listed above.

Foundation for Minimal Solaris 10 Systems
comp.sys.sun.admin post

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Sunday, January 25, 2009

Creating a Virtual Interface (Solaris)

ifconfig qfe0:1 plumb
ifcofnig qfe0:1
ifconfig qfe0:1 netmask broadcast ifconfig qfe0:1 up

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Saturday, January 24, 2009

Piping commands to xargs

Feed the list of all those empty files to the rm command one at a time, and you're done:

$ ls -tr |xargs -t -I{} rm -f {}


ls /var/log/*.[0-9]* | xargs gzip --best

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Friday, January 23, 2009

Hummingbird technique

Was watching some episode of my own worst enemy and heard about this technique called hummingbird technique. Got curious and searched about it.

Ok, here's what I got...

The Hummingbird is a sex game in which you hum when you give oral pleasure to your partner. The vibrations add a complete new dimension to the experience. As we know, vibrators are stimulating, and oral s-e-x is great, and the combination can be divine. This is how it is done:

1. This is a technique that both men and women can use, to enhance the experience of oral s-e-x.

2. When you want to use this technique, think about a tune you want to hum, and when your partner is already getting excited, you add to this excitement by humming your tune.

Intriguing huh? =D

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Alternate Row Shading in Excel

Alternate row shading using Conditional Formatting Alternate row shading using Conditional Formatting

One way to make your data legible is to apply cell shading to every other row in a range. Excel's Conditional Formatting feature (available in Excel or later) makes this a simple task.

Select the range that you want to format

Choose Format, Conditional Formatting

In the Conditional Formatting dialog box, select Formula Is from the drop-down list, and enter this formula:


Click the Format button, select the Patterns tab, and specify a color for the shaded rows.

Click OK twice to return to your worksheet.

The best part is that the row shading is dynamic. You'll find that the row shading persists even if you insert or delete rows within the original range.

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Thursday, January 22, 2009

Set your prompt in csh

Do/try this:

set prompt='[%n@%m:%c]%# '

in ksh:

export PS1='[$HOSTNAME]<$PWD> '

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Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Mirroring disks with DiskSuite

The following example shows how to mirror two disks--c0t0d0 with c0t1d0--using Solstice DiskSuite 4.2.1 on Solaris 8. Please read the excellent Admin's Guide to Solstice Disk Suite for more information.

The current partition table of c0t0d0:

Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks
0 root wm 0 - 812 400.15MB (813/0/0) 819504
1 swap wu 813 - 1333 256.43MB (521/0/0) 525168
2 backup wm 0 - 17659 8.49GB (17660/0/0) 17801280
3 unassigned wm 1334 - 1354 10.34MB (21/0/0) 21168
4 var wm 1355 - 8522 3.45GB (7168/0/0) 7225344
5 usr wm 8523 - 14764 3.00GB (6242/0/0) 6291936
6 unassigned wm 14765 - 16845 1.00GB (2081/0/0) 2097648
7 home wm 16846 - 17658 400.15MB (813/0/0) 819504

1. Copy the partition table of the first disk to its mirror.
# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard -s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2

2. Create at least 2 DiskSuite state database replicas on each disk. A state database replica contains DiskSuite configuration and state information.
# metadb -a -f -c2 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s3 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s3

Description of metadb flags:
-a -- adding
-f -- force (needed the first time creating databases)
-c2 -- create 2 databases in each slice

3. Mirror the root slice.
# metainit -f d10 1 1 c0t0d0s0
# metainit -f d20 1 1 c0t1d0s0
# metainit d0 -m d10
# metaroot d0
(Use this command only on the root slice!)

4. Mirror the swap slice.
# metainit -f d11 1 1 c0t0d0s1
# metainit -f d21 1 1 c0t1d0s1
# metainit d1 -m d11

5. Mirror the var slice.
# metainit -f d14 1 1 c0t0d0s4
# metainit -f d24 1 1 c0t1d0s4
# metainit d4 -m d14

6. Mirror the usr slice.
# metainit -f d15 1 1 c0t0d0s5
# metainit -f d25 1 1 c0t1d0s5
# metainit d5 -m d15

7. Mirror the opt slice.
# metainit -f d16 1 1 c0t0d0s6
# metainit -f d26 1 1 c0t1d0s6
# metainit d6 -m d16

8. Mirror the home slice.
# metainit -f d17 1 1 c0t0d0s7
# metainit -f d27 1 1 c0t1d0s7
# metainit d7 -m d17

Run metastat metadevice for information on a metadevice. If you wish to delete a metadevice, run metaclear metadevice.

9. Update /etc/vfstab to mount the mirrors after boot.

/etc/vfstab before changes:

#device device mount FS fsck mount mount
#to mount to fsck point type pass at boot options
#/dev/dsk/c1d0s2 /dev/rdsk/c1d0s2 /usr ufs 1 yes -
fd - /dev/fd fd - no -
/proc - /proc proc - no -
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 - - swap - no -
/dev/md/dsk/d30 /dev/md/rdsk/d30 / ufs 1 no logging
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s5 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s5 /usr ufs 1 no ro,logging
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s4 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s4 /var ufs 1 no nosuid,logging
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s7 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s7 /home ufs 2 yes nosuid,logging
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6 /opt ufs 2 yes nosuid,logging
swap - /tmp tmpfs - yes -

/etc/vfstab after changes:

#device device mount FS fsck mount mount
#to mount to fsck point type pass at boot options
#/dev/dsk/c1d0s2 /dev/rdsk/c1d0s2 /usr ufs 1 yes -
fd - /dev/fd fd - no -
/proc - /proc proc - no -
/dev/md/dsk/d1 - - swap - no -
/dev/md/dsk/d0 /dev/md/rdsk/d0 / ufs 1 no logging
/dev/md/dsk/d5 /dev/md/rdsk/d5 /usr ufs 1 no ro,logging
/dev/md/dsk/d4 /dev/md/rdsk/d4 /var ufs 1 no nosuid,logging
/dev/md/dsk/d7 /dev/md/rdsk/d7 /home ufs 2 yes nosuid,logging
/dev/md/dsk/d6 /dev/md/rdsk/d6 /opt ufs 2 yes nosuid,logging
swap - /tmp tmpfs - yes -

10. Reboot the system.
# lockfs -fa
# init 6

11. Attach the second submirror to the mirror. This will cause the data from the boot disk to be synchronized with the mirrored drive.

# metattach d0 d20
# metattach d1 d21
# metattach d4 d24
# metattach d5 d25
# metattach d6 d26
# metattach d7 d27

You can run metastat to track the mirroring progress.

12. Change the crash dump device to the DiskSuite swap metadevice (Solaris 7 and later).
# dumpadm -d `swap -l | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}'`

13. Determine the physical device path of the mirror disk.
$ ls -l /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 50 Jan 16 10:20 /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s0 -> ../../devices/pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/dad@1,0:a

Replace the major name (e.g. dad) in the physical device path with disk when creating the device alias below.

14. Create a mirror device alias for the mirror disk:
# eeprom "nvramrc=devalias mirror /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0:a"
# eeprom "use-nvramrc?=true"

You can also configure the device alias from the Open Boot (ok) prompt:
nvalias mirror /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0:a

You may want to add the mirror device alias to the boot-device Open Boot parameter in case of a problem with the standard boot device.


# eeprom boot-device
boot-device=disk net

In case of a problem with the disk device alias, the system will attempt to boot from the mirror device alias and then the network with the following change.
# eeprom "boot-device=disk mirror net"

From the Open Boot prompt, type boot mirror to boot from the mirror disk.

15. If you only have two internal disks (i.e. the boot disk and mirror disk), consider adding the following parameter to /etc/system to bypass the SVM/DiskSuite "quorum" rule.

set md:mirrored_root_flag = 1

Without this parameter, the system will not boot in multiuser mode if half or fewer of its state database replicas are available.

More information:

DiskSuite mirror shell script

The following shell script performs all steps of the boot disk mirroring process above, except for rebooting the system.

I do not recommend using the shell script unless you understand the above procedure and shell script logic. If you do use the shell script, it is essential that you correctly configure the first six variables.

Download the script.

DiskSuite mirror shell script (deprecated)

I use the following shell script to mirror the $BOOT_DISK and $MIRROR_DISK after manually creating the DiskSuite state database replicas. If slice 0 is not your root slice, make sure to modify the script so that the $METAROOT command is executed on the root slice. Be sure to comment out slices that you would not like mirrored. The script assumes that DiskSuite database replicas are located on slice 3, so this slice is initally commented out.



# Slice 0 (root slice)
$METAINIT -f d10 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s0
$METAINIT -f d20 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s0
$METAINIT d30 -m d10

# Slice 1
$METAINIT -f d11 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s1
$METAINIT -f d21 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s1
$METAINIT d31 -m d11

# Slice 2 will not be mirrored (represents entire disk)

# Slice 3 is initially commented out; slice containing DiskSuite
# database replicas in our environment
#$METAINIT -f d13 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s3
#$METAINIT -f d23 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s3
#$METAINIT d33 -m d13

# Slice 4
$METAINIT -f d14 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s4
$METAINIT -f d24 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s4
$METAINIT d34 -m d14

# Slice 5
$METAINIT -f d15 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s5
$METAINIT -f d25 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s5
$METAINIT d35 -m d15

# Slice 6
$METAINIT -f d16 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s6
$METAINIT -f d26 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s6
$METAINIT d36 -m d16

# Slice 7
$METAINIT -f d17 1 1 ${BOOT_DISK}s7
$METAINIT -f d27 1 1 ${MIRROR_DISK}s7
$METAINIT d37 -m d17

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Extracting Solaris System Information


The psrinfo utility displays processor information. When run in verbose mode, it lists the speed of each processor and when the processor was last placed on-line (generally the time the system was started unless it was manually taken off-line).

/usr/sbin/psrinfo -v
Status of processor 1 as of: 12/12/02 09:25:50
Processor has been on-line since 11/17/02 21:10:09.
The sparcv9 processor operates at 400 MHz,
and has a sparcv9 floating point processor.
Status of processor 3 as of: 12/12/02 09:25:50
Processor has been on-line since 11/17/02 21:10:11.
The sparcv9 processor operates at 400 MHz,
and has a sparcv9 floating point processor.

The psradm utility can enable or disable a specific processor.

To disable a processor:
/usr/sbin/psradm -f processor_id

To enable a processor:
/usr/sbin/psradm -n processor_id

The psrinfo utility will display the processor_id when run in either standard or verbose mode.


The prtconf utility will display the system configuration, including the amount of physical memory.

To display the amount of RAM:

/usr/sbin/prtconf | grep Memory
Memory size: 3072 Megabytes

Disk space

Although there are several ways you could gather this information, the following command lists the amount of kilobytes in use versus total kilobytes available in local file systems stored on physical disks. The command does not include disk space usage from the /proc virtual file system, the floppy disk, or swap space.

df -lk | egrep -v "Filesystem|/proc|/dev/fd|swap" | awk '{ total_kbytes += $2 } { used_kbytes += $3 } END { printf "%d of %d kilobytes in use.\n", used_kbytes, total_kbytes }'
19221758 of 135949755 kilobytes in use.

You may want to convert the output to megabytes or gigabytes and display the statistics as a percentage of utilization.

The above command will list file system usage. If you are interested in listing physical disks (some of which may not be allocated to a file system), use the format command as the root user, or the iostat -En command as a non-privileged user.

Processor and kernel bits

If you are running Solaris 2.6 or earlier, you are running a 32-bit kernel.

Determine bits of processor:
isainfo -bv

Determine bits of Solaris kernel:
isainfo -kv

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Handy Zone Commands

 zoneadm list  (run from the Global zone to list all RUNNING zones)

Creating a Zone

Create a dedicated ZFS storage pool for the zones to use. See the ZFS Pool commands below. The Scripts assume that you have a ZFS pool already created. You will need to know the name of your zpool (use "zfs list" and/or "zpool list")

In the Global Zone, as root, use the Scripts located in /vol.unix/scripts/zone_scripts These will create your zfspool, setup processor pools, and install your zone.

Copy the ZONE_scripts.tar file to your global zone and edit the files as necessary.

 - REVIEW the README.txt file
- Edit the script
- FS0=<0>
- Edit zone_cmd_template.txt to define your installation
- See comments in the File

After the Zone is installed, log into the console from the global zone:

 zlogin -C 

~. (Exits the Console)

NOTE: If the zone did not auto boot - boot it manually:

 zoneadm -z  boot   # then log back into the console to watch it boot

Answer the SYSIDCFG information to define the Zone and you are in!

Cloning a Zone

To make a "copy" of an existing non-global Zone follow the Steps here:

- Shut down the Zone you want to Clone from the Global Zone. This example uses psdmmzz001 as the Global, and psdmmba099 as the source we want to clone From. Plan is to create a new clone called psdmmba088.

psdmmzz001# zoneadm -z psdmmba099 halt

- Dump the configuration of pdsmmba099 so we can edit it to feed to psdmmba088

psdmmzz001# zonecfg -z psdmmba099 export -f /zfspool/zone_cfgs/psdmmba099_master

cd /zfspool/zone_cfgs cp psdmmba099_master psdmmba088_master

edit psdmmba088_master to include new info for name/IP/location

create -b
set zonepath=/zfspool/psdmmba088/root
set autoboot=true
set pool=pool_psdmmba099 (Using the same CPU Resource pool as ba099)
set ip-type=shared
add net
set address=
set physical=e1000g0

- Create the new zone(psdmmba088) by using the commands in the file (psdmmba088_master)

psdmmzz001# zonecfg -z psdmmba088 -f /zfspool/zone_cfgs/psdmmba088_master

- Install the new zone(psdmmba088) by cloning (psdmmba099)

psdmmzz001# zoneadm -z psdmmba088 clone psdmmba099

  Cloning zonepath /zfspool/psdmmba099/root...

- List all the ZONES on the system:

psdmmzz001# zoneadm list -cv

 ID NAME             STATUS     PATH                           BRAND    IP
0 global running / native shared
1 psdmmdb099 running /zfspool/psdmmdb099/root native shared
- psdmmba099 installed /zfspool/psdmmba099/root native shared
- psdmmba088 installed /zfspool/psdmmba088/root native shared

- Boot the Zones:

psdmmzz001# zoneadm -z psdmmba099 boot
psdmmzz001# zoneadm -z psdmmba088 boot

- Log into the console of new Zone (pdsmmba088) and complete the System Configuration:

psdmmzz001# zlogin -C psdmmba088 [Connected to zone 'psdmmba088' console]

Select a Language

0. English
1. French
2. German
3. es

Please make a choice (0 - 3), or press h or ? for help:

Zone is UP!

Removing a Zone

There is no undo, so make sure this is what you want to do before you do it!!

If you want to completely remove a zone called '' from your system, login to the global zone and become root.

Shut down the zone:

 zlogin  shutdown    [Grace]


zoneadm -z halt [Force]

The first command is the opposite of the 'install' option of zoneadm and deletes all of the files under the zonepath:

 zoneadm -z  uninstall

Are you sure you want to uninstall zone (y/[n])? y

At this point, the zone is in the configured state. To remove it completely from the system use:

 zonecfg -z  delete

Are you sure you want to delete zone (y/[n])? y

ZFS Commands

Command to Create the initial ZFS Pool - This command creates the ZFS storage pool - Mounts it to a mount point with the same name as the pool

 zpool create zfspool mirror c1t0d0s6 c1t1d0s6

Commands to create ZFS storage areas on the pool that was just created.

 zfs create zfspool/
zfs create zfspool//root # this is where the Zone OS will be installed
zfs create zfspool//oracle # only necessary for Oracle DB Zones

zfs set quota=3G zfspool//root # limits the size of the root zone
zfs set quota=5G zfspool//oracle # limits the size of the oracle file system

zfs list

zfs destroy zfspool/nvnammmdo001/root # destroy one zfs volume

zfs destroy -r zfspool/nvnammmdo001 # recursive destory

Using a USB Drive with Solaris and ZFS

Attach the drives to a running Solaris System capable of reading ZFS over USB. (some older version of Solaris are not capable out of the Box.)

NOTE - You May need/want to disable 'vold' if you encounter issues

Verify your system recognizes the drive ('rmformat')

# rmformat
Looking for devices...
1. Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0
Physical Node: /pci@0,0/pci108e,cb84@2/storage@4/disk@0,0
Connected Device: American Virtual Cdrom De 0100
Device Type:
2. Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0p0
Physical Node: /pci@0,0/pci108e,cb84@2/storage@5/disk@0,0
Connected Device: AMI Virtual Floppy 1.00
Device Type:
3. Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0p0
Physical Node: /pci@0,0/pci-ide@6/ide@0/sd@0,0
Connected Device: MATSHITA CD-RW CW-8124 DZ13
Device Type: DVD Reader
--> 4. Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0p0
Physical Node: /pci@0,0/pci108e,cb84@2,1/hub@6/storage@2/disk@0,0
Connected Device: JMicron JM20338 SATA, US 0100
Device Type: Removable

Create a NEW ZFS pool on a NEW "unformatted" device.

# zpool create usbdisk1 c4t0d0p0

This will create the ZFS Pool, the /usbdisk1 mount point, and mount it for usage.
# zpool list
usbdisk1 928G 881G 47.4G 94% ONLINE -

Connecting a previously formated ZFS USB Disk.

Run 'zpool import' as root to view available zpools to connect.

# zpool import
pool: usbdisk1
id: 414197119596802420
state: ONLINE
action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.

usbdisk1 ONLINE
c4t0d0p0 ONLINE

Connect the ZFS Pool - as root (this will mount the drive and create the mountpoint)

# zpool import usbdisk1

Interact with the Data

# cd /usbdisk1

UNMOUNTING Drives before removing
When you are finihsed with the drive, unmount it from the system before disconnecting the USB cable.
# zpool export usbdisk1

This will unmount the drive and remove the mountpoint.

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Full System Backup via ufsdump

ufsdump backs up all files in filesystem, where filesystem represents a special device, or files changed after a certain date, to magnetic tape and ufsrestore is the utility for restoring data backup from a ufsdump. We can use restore interactively to restore certain files or directories.

Below is a quick guide on doing a full backup using ufsdump

Remember to run ufsdump backup on single usermode.
$ init -s

To Dump a backup of the root filesystem issue the following command
$ ufsdump 0uf /path were you want to dump backup/ /

Then Verify your dump
$ ufsrestore tf /path were you dump the backup/file

To Restore your dump | backup
$ ufsrestore rvf /path were you dump the backup/file

Do man ufsdump to find out what other switches is available

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Non Global Zone Removal

# Shut down the zone my-zone.
global# zlogin my-zone shutdown

# Remove the root file system for my-zone.
global# zoneadm -z my-zone uninstall -F

# Delete the configuration for my-zone.
global# zonecfg -z my-zone delete -F

# List the zones on the system, to verify that my-zone is no longer listed.
global# zoneadm list -iv

# Delete the pool
global# zpool destroy poolname

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Tuesday, January 20, 2009

What is courage?


What is the meaning of courage?

Is it to fight a bull in a bullfight?

Is it to drive a formula 1 car?

Is it to fly a fighter in combat?

Is it to practice free fall parachuting?

Is it bungee jumping, wild water rafting?

Is it to gamble your salary on a coin toss?

Is it to insult the doorman in a bar?

Is it to insult your boss?

Is it to go on a defective Ferris wheel?

…that is nothing… THIS is COURAGE!!!

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Monday, January 19, 2009


I'm officially staying here in Canada for about 2 months for my new company. I arrived here 12:30 pm (give or take a couple of minutes) after roughly 12hrsa of flight. It's currently 3 degree Celsius here; still has remnants of snow at the streets and lawns. So I guess I can never leave home without layered clothes and my thermal jacket :)

One note though am very very disappointed about the roaming service of globe telecom here in Canada. Postpaid subscribers are supposed to have roaming automatically enable now but guess what? No signal for me amp...

That's all for now

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Sunday, January 18, 2009

Manny Pacquiao-Ricky Hatton showdown will push through after all

was reading at when I came to this article by Cedelf P. Tupas...

A day after the fight looked doomed, Top Rank promoter Bob Arum Thursday said the duel between boxing’s top pound-for-pound fighter and its 140 lb king is back “under control” because Pacquiao has agreed to a 50-50 split with Hatton.

The Los Angeles Times Thursday reported that Pacquiao is expected to sign the fight contract “sometime Thursday.”

“There was a lot of confusion about why we did 50-50, but everyone now understands why this is a good deal,” Arum told the LA Times’ Lance Pugmire. “This thing is going to happen. Thursday (Tuesday) was disarray. Today, everything’s back in order.”

Pacquiao’s lawyer, Franklin Gacal, on Monday said the Filipino superstar was demanding a 60-40 revenue sharing for the fight and hinted that they would look for another opponent if their terms were not met for the fight that is expected to gross $58.4 million.

The demand prompted Hatton’s handlers to threaten the Filipino champion with a lawsuit and Arum to call off the fight since the American promoter and the British Hitman’s handlers had verbally agreed to equal sharing late last month.

Pacquiao apparently backed out on his demand due to the expected windfall from the pay-per-view revenue in Britain, which Arum said is “attributable to Hatton.” The Filipino would get half of the PPV revenue.

Floyd Mayweather Jr. did not receive any share from the PPV income in Britain when he knocked out Hatton in 2007, Arum said.

Arum said that when he explained the Mayweather Jr. case to Pacquiao’s advisers, “everybody ... calmed down.”

The super fight, which will be held at a still undetermined venue in Las Vegas, is expected to be announced officially next week.

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Free PSP Games Download

Ok so if you are like most of us and looking for free PSP games download. Want to play popular PSP games and don't want to spend money to buy those UMDs. There are many PSP download sites on the internet. However, Google search results has been spammed already by trash sites, sites that pretend to give you free PSP games but actually just full of spammy keywords, but no PSP games to download.

I've managed to compile some of the free PSP games download sites that worked me.

Here they are, enjoy...

Here are a few websites where you can download 100% free psp iso/cso All you need to do is signup there is no catch no paying and even no offers just ur e-mail username and pass

the dukes link has changed now the current one now works. the reason the old website was closed down was because google found games is illegal so they closed it down. now his new website say to make sure you only download games you already have (like we'll do that)

this is also the simplest link i could find just click whichever one you want and download it


you do need custom firmware to play these games. you know u have it if your firmware version ends with a "GEN" "M33" "OEA" or is 1.50. dont ask me how to get it. just search psp downgrading and there is altlest 200 videos of them.

Difference Between ISO and CSO
CSO is smaller ISO is bigger

CSO requires more battery life and for the CPU to be at 333 or it wont run properly

ISO can be left normally

CSO and ISO can be 1 file

CSO is never recommended for fast paced gaes like Midnight Club LA

in any game you can sometimes notice some lag with CSO

ISO run smoothly 100% of the time

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Saturday, January 17, 2009

Upgrade Instructions for AiX Netbackup Clients

  1. Log on to candidate server with you t#######.

  2. Make a copy of the Exclude List and put it in a temporary location for later. Use the command:

    cd /usr/openv/netbackup
    cp ./exclude_list* /export/home/<>/

  3. Find room on the server to keep a copy of the current configuration file. :

  4. Create a directory to hold the old config, create a tar ball of that config and compress it.

  5. Determine if the server is a Media server or Client. If this is a Media Server, remove the package from the OS repository:

    lslpp -L all |grep -i VRTS
    /usr/lib/instl/sm_inst installp_cmd -u -f'VRTSpbx' '-p' '-g'


installp –r

Rename openv directory to openv.old using the command:

cd /usr
mv openv openv.old

  1. Mount the source directory from iedm1150 (for AIX)
    showmount -a iedm1550
    mkdir /tmp/nbutmp
    mount -o ro /tmp/nbutmp

  2. Now install Netbackup 6.0. This needs to be done from the “/” root directory:

    cd /

    Use the FQDN as name of the server, like (answer no for the suggested TEN hostname).
    Point to as master server. Enterprise Media Manager Server is

  1. For ORACLE servers, install the Oracle RMAN enabler.

    cd /tmp/nbutmp/

    Choose # 2
    Choose Local Installation

  1. Verify bp.conf and make appropriate changes:

    $ cat bp.conf
    # Server List
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    SERVER =
    # Media Server List

  1. Before running test backups create the log files.

    cd /usr/openv/netbackup/logs
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpbrm
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpbkar
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpcd
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpdbm
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpdm
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bphdb
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bptm
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/dbclient
    mkdir /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/nb_obs
    cd /usr/openv/netbackup/logs
    chmod -R 777 *

  2. Create the jobs directory.

    cd /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/user_ops/
    mkdir –p dbext/jobs
    chmod –R 777 ./dbext

  1. Copy/Overwrite the Exclude List with the Exclude list from the temporary location from safeguarded in step #2.

    cd /usr/openv/netbackup
    cp /export/home/<>/exclude_list* .

  1. Create policies/etc


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