Tuesday, December 27, 2005

Access to Oracle Migration

Migrating from Access to Oracle is tough enough as it is, these are a few of my favorite things to make that go as smoothly as possible. Hopefully you will find this usefull in moving those databases, because I wish I had it when I started!

My assumption is of course that i’m the last one to be moving away from MS Access who has been using ColdFusion for a while. I’d be interested to hear if anyone else is moving away from it, and what to.

Tools I used:

mdbtools will allow you to dump the data in your access database. I had a problem with the rpm version, and needed to get the most recent revision from cvs to solve a few bugs in the app. http://mdbtools.sourceforge.net/

pl/sql developer A good sql program for creating tables and such, but version 6.0 really shines with it’s text importer component. http://www.allroundautomations.nl/plsqldev.html

Step by StepOn a linux box get your .mdb files together in a single folder
Create your oracle schemeas from the .mdb database (this shell statement just runs mdb-schema on each .mdb file in the working directory)

for i in *.mdb;do mdb-schema $i oracle > $i.schema.sql;done

Dump your data as csv (this shell statement just exports each table in each .mdb file in the working directory)

for i in *.mdb;do for j in `mdb-tables $i`;do mdb-export $i $j>$i.$j.csv;done;done

Customize any field changes

Field and table changes are done In the .sql file generated from the access database structure. Remember to save your changes there! Things to watch out for:

I like to make sure each table has an ID column
memo fields in access export as clob(255). Normally these can end up as varchar2(4000) or smaller. 4000 was the size limit for varchar2 on my oracle server, i’m not sure if that is standard though. Obviously if you need more than 4k in size use a CLOB.
Copy the .csv and .sql files to your windows box which has pl/sql developer.

Fire up pl/sql developer (6.0+)
Create tables in oracle using the .sql file mdbtools generated
Create sequences for each ID column. Set the cache number to 0 for the sequence.
Import the .csv data to oracle
Tools->text importer
Hit the icon in the top left to select the .csv file
Under ‘data to oracle’ tab select the owner, and table name
For any column names which were modified manually select that database field name
For each date column select date for original data format, and then click ‘create sql’ to create the todate function in the import process. Modify the function depending on the data format.
For fields names that end in ‘date’ change the datatype to ’string’ and remove the todate function
The text importer picks ups some fields as number type when they should be string
Click import at bottom left
Update all your application sql code.
References and Resourcesan article by oracle.

Other ThoughtsAfter this methodology was figured out, I heard word that you can export directly from microsoft access to oracle if you have an odbc connection setup to Oracle on your client computer (where you have access open). I have yet to verify this, but I sure I wish I had known this months ago. Either way you would still need to make any table changes and setup sequences to replace those autonumber fields.

As they say, the devil is in the details; so go root him out!

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Wednesday, December 21, 2005

To you...

Where are you now going?
Are you leaving me again?
Of course I wish you would stay,
even for the night,
Have you not yet understood?
You are a ray of light in my darkness
which dispels my nightmare
as I awaken from my restless sleep
in my lonely erratic world,
You are my calm.
You are the structure to my wild imagination,
which does not know where the nightmare ends
and reality begins,
You are my right mind.
You are a gentle artist
who with a firm hand
knows how to put together the fragments of my ravaged soul
without breaking them again
In your hands they come together.
And I am a boy in love,
for whom you are the sunrise and sunset
the lunar light, the Sol in Solar System…
What more could I ask of life
than that I might be by your side
night and day?

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What's meant to be...

Regardless of what you believe, everyone has to have something to hold on to. A hope, a dream, a person, a place... something. Many of us are lucky enough to have a lot of these somethings to hold on to throughout our lives. No one should ever be without any... I think you feel like you're all alone sometimes, even when that's not really true, because for some people there is a point where you just decide you are on some other level, for better or for worse, and for a time there is nothing that can be done about it. I like to think that I affect the world in some way, affect the people I call my friends, and even those who I don't but still deal with from day to day. Making a difference shouldn't have to matter so much to any single person, but everyone likes to feel like they're needed... like they're wanted, once in awhile. I've never completely lost a friend. I know I've come close... closer than I'd ever have liked to, but something always allows me (or them) to hold on. It's almost like the people you meet, the ones you bother to associate with past your first meeting, those people you have some kind of connection with... you can feel it. It doesn't matter how you met them or how long you've know them, it's about what you've shared and how you relate to them... it's about what they mean to you and what you mean to them. It's those people you want to be important to... those people you want to make a difference for in their lives for the better. If you're like me you let almost your whole life ride on that line whether you should or not. I trust my friends deeply and try to always ask little in return. Unfortunately some people will take this for granted if you let them. You ask for little back and that's exactly what you get. But in my case I'd say I've been pretty lucky. Sure I've been betrayed, been hurt, but I've grown every time and learned a little more. Most people I found my way back to and this is where I'm left to wonder what I believe anymore.

Do I believe in meant to be? For awhile now I have usually leaned towards yes... in a way. I believe that people have and make connections in their lives, people bond to each other out of a number of reasons: attraction, mentality, location, convenience, etc.... just to name a few.... but I also believe there are those special connections you make with certain people, usually unplanned and unknown until they've happened. It is those connections that I find to be the most important and the ones that you should hold on to at all costs. Just because you feel it doesn't mean the other person does, at least not to the same degree, but sometimes in life that doesn't matter either. It sounds like I'm talking about feelings... the matters of liking and love... well I am only partly. I'm actually talking about something on a different level, at least I think I am, and pardon this rant at such a time... with Vday on its way and me in a very confusing place right now. I have questioned so much in past months and rethought EVERYTHING in the last few days. I've come to some conclusions but not all. There is still much left up in the air, many things still going unsaid. Tonight something changed again just like something changed not too long ago. I keep changing too. I think I know what I want, who I want, but I don't really know anymore if I'm headed in the right place or not. Sure I always think I am at the time, but it's only after the dust from the road traveled clears that you can really see for sure or not. I'm typing with my eyes closed right now. I guess that says something about me... (that I'm on my computer too much and for too many years?) Wow I don't even have to look for special characters. What a talent... but back to my point and yes that was half relevant. Loving someone... which I never thought I'd think myself such an authority on, it not about lust, it's not even about being lonely, though those are both aspects of it I suppose. It's about a lot of things, namely trust, want, and connection. Yes back to this connection stuff I have already been talking about. It's like typing with your eyes closed. You aren't quite sure you are hitting all the right keys, but you've been invested in it for awhile, so you think you have a pretty good chance of being close. I open my eyes. I'm still not looking at the keyboard, but I have assurance somewhat that what I am typing is right because I can see it with my own eyes. But before while I couldn't be as certain about it, I was still pretty confident because I had the FEELING that it was right. Does all that make any sense? I still hit keys incorrectly sometimes, looking or not, there will always be mistakes and things can't always work out the way you expect them to. But you decide what you believe. You know how you feel. And you have to trust yourself and where your heart leads you. This isn't just about another person, this is about life. And maybe I should try letting up on the philosophy at 3 in the morning but sometimes I just can't avoid it. Yes, I believe in meant to be, but I also believe that fate guides everybody just a little. It's what gives you that "six sense" sometimes about something, it's what makes you take that extra moment to look at something, it's what makes you late so you run into that person you would have never met otherwise... it's the only thing I've ever really had faith in completely... that fate will take a certain amount of control over your life and it will guide you to some degree, whether you like it or not, and you will be totally effected by chance and there is just nothing you can do about it. You go with what happens day to day as long as you can make it because really you have no other choice, at least very little option. And what I was saying before about connections with other people and wanting to be important in certain peoples lives... well you have to accept a certain give and take. But what I've realized in this past year of my life is this... you can't hold on to something forever anymore than you can let it go completely. There will always be a part of you that wants and needs to hold on... to that something or someone. You won't always get what you put out in return and sometimes it might come back at you in a way you don't expect... that is just part of life. You are going to know a lot of people in life's course, you might as well accept it now that they won't all be to your "standards" and only a few will truly connect with you because only a few probably truly can. Hold on to this if you are lucky enough to find it. Believe me it's not always easy... but in the end, you have to believe it's worth it. That is where faith comes in again. Because even if things aren't always going your way, even if you think you are losing the ones you love... not the ones you want for other reasons, I mean the ones you want happiness for, the ones you sacrifice for, the ones you give up for, those are the ones you truly love... and it's not about liking them and all that stuff... it's about something on a totally different level, not of just friendship or relationship or anything else that's single... it's something else all together and something I think very few people ever truly understand. And hey, I'm not trying to claim that I really understand it all either... but I want to believe in it. I want to believe there is someone out there for everyone, that two people can share a connection, and that someone lost is never lost forever, just finding their own way back. I have to close my eyes again and remind myself that I cannot be a complete fool for all the trust I give. There must be a reason behind it and a way for it to all work out in the end. Maybe a smile is enough sometimes, maybe that is all it takes to forgive a misunderstanding or a lack of courage, maybe it is all it takes to tell you deep down that you don't exist for nothing and that you are wanted too.... it's just the world isn't ready for that time yet... and so maybe you aren't either. And once you accept that, maybe it's then that you really are able to start moving ahead to exactly where and with exactly who you are meant to be with afterall...

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Thursday, December 1, 2005

James Dean Quotes

The following are quotes by Dean himself.

"You can't do the things I'm doing. I can flirt with death and come through"

"To grasp the full significance of life is the actor's duty; to interpret it his problem; and to express it his dedication. Being an actor is the loneliest thing in the world. You are all alone with your concentration and imagination, and that's all you have. Being a good actor isn't easy. Being a man is even harder. I want to be both before I'm done."

"Racing is the only time I feel whole"

" Change is the nature of genius."

"Studying cows, pigs and chickens can help an actor develop his character. There are a lot of things I learned from animals. One was that they couldn't hiss or boo me. I also became close to nature, and am now able to appreciate the beauty with which this world is endowed."

"Whatever's inside making me what I am it's like film. Film only works in the dark. Tear it all open and let in the light and you kill it."

"Since I'm only 24 years old, guess I have as good an insight into this rising generation as any other young man my age. And I've discovered that most young men do not stand like ramrods or talk like Demosthenes. Therefore, when I do play a youth, such as in Warner Bros. Rebel Without A Cause, I try to imitate life. The picture deals with the problems of modern youth. It is the romanticized conception of the juvenile that causes much of our trouble with misguided youth nowadays. I think the one thing this picture shows that's new is the psychological disproportion of the kids' demands on the parents. Parents are often at fault, but the kids have some work to do, too. But you can't show some far off idyllic conception of behavior if you want the kids to come and see the picture. You've got to show what it's really like, and try to reach them on their own grounds. You know, a lot of times an older boy, one of the fellows the young ones idolize, can go back to the high school kids and tell them, "Look what happened to me! Why be a punk and get in trouble with the law?Why do these senseless things just for a thrill?" I hope "Rebel Without A Cause" will do something like that. I hope it will remind them that other people have feelings. Perhaps they will say, "What do we need all that for?"If a picture is psychologically motivated, if there is truth in the relationship in it, then I think that picture will do good. I firmly believe Rebel Without A Cause is such a picture."

"Old Hemingway squeezed the juice out of life... I'm not going to live past 30."

"When an actor plays a scene exactly the way a director orders, it isn’t acting. It’s following instructions. Anyone with the physical qualifications can do that. So the director’s task is just that – to direct, to point the way. Then the actor takes over. And he must be allowed the space, the freedom to express himself in the role. Without that space, an actor is no more than an unthinking robot with a chest-full of push-buttons."

The following are quotes about Dean.

"In Texas, one disgustingly hot night during the filming of Giant, he and I ate a full jar of peanut butter, a box of crackers and six Milky Ways, and drank twelve Coca-Cola's!" Mercedes McCambridge (Luz Benedict) from her autobiography, "The Quality of Mercy"

" Before James Dean you were either a baby or a man. There was nothing in-between..." Sal Mineo

"I think he didn't understand what he was all about. He was very frustrated because he felt there was something within himself that he didn't understand. He knew that he wanted to go some place and the place he wanted to go to - he didn't understand that either. And he was reaching for someone to help him find out whatever it was he wanted to reach." Eartha Kitt

"He wanted to do everything for us, buy us presents - just keep us. Any bills we had we would pay. We were young and had our own careers and our pride and we could't handle it. Jimmy had our love anyway - he didn't have to start buying it." Actress/girlfriend Elizabeth 'Dizzy' Sheridan

"He didn't comb his hair. He had a safety pin holding his pants together. He was introspective and very shy." Natalie Wood

' There was something suicidal in his nature. but I don't think it was a conscious thing." Carroll Baker

"Dean was never a friend of mine, but he had an idèe fixe about me. Whatever I did, he did. He was always trying to get close to me. He used to call up. I'd listen to him talking to the answering service, asking for me, leaving messages. But I never spoke up. I never called him back." Marlon Brando

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Before you think of saying an unkind word
Think of someone who can't speak

Before you complain about the taste of your food
Think of someone who has nothing to eat

Before you complain about your husband or wife
Think of someone who's crying out to God for a companion

Today before you complain about life
Think of someone who went too early to heaven

Before you complain about your children
Think of someone who desires children but they're barren

Before you argue about your dirty house; someone didn't clean or sweep
Think of the people who are living in the streets

Before whining about the distance you drive
Think of someone who walks the same distance with their feet

And when you are tired and complain about your job
Think of the unemployed, the disabled and those who wished they had your job.

But before you think of pointing the finger or condemning another
Remember that not one of us are without sin and we all answer to one maker

And when depressing thoughts seem to get you down
Put a smile on your face and thank God you're alive and still around.

Life is a gift of GOD.
LIVE it....
ENJOY it......
CELEBRATE it.........
AND FULFILL it...............

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Monday, November 14, 2005

Paciano: Ang Limot na Rizal

Daniel Mendoza Anciano

Ang taong 1996 ay idineklara ng ating pamahalaan na Taon ng Mga Bayani at ang kulminasyon ng nasabing aktibidad ay masesentro sa pagunita ng sambayanang Filipino sa sentenaryo ng kamartiran ni Dr. Jose P. Rizal. Isang indibidwal na nag-alay ng kaniyang buhay para sa katuparan ng kaniyang bisyon na magkaroon ng kagalingan para sa kaniyang mga kababayan sa pamamagitan ng pagpapairal ng mga reporma sa noon ay kolonyal na pamahalaan ng Espanya sa bansa. Sa kabilang dako, ang pagdakila ng sambayanang Filipino kay Rizal ay nagsilbing isang trahedya, sa isang lalaking tunay na nasa likuran ng kaniyang buhay at kabayanihan na natabunan ng kaniyang maningning na kasikatan - ang lalaking ito ay si Paciano Mercado, ang limot na Rizal.

Mayroong dalawang kontensiyon ukol sa pagiging pigurang historikal ni Paciano; Una naging sikat si Paciano dahilan sa kapatid siya ni Rizal; pangalawa, naging sikat si Rizal, dahilan sa naging kapatid niya si Paciano. Sa dalawang magkasalungat na kontensiyong ito, wala akong pangingimi kahit isang sandali na piliin ang huli. Ang manunulat ng biograpiya ni Rizal na si Leon Ma. Guerrero ay napuna ang pagkalimot kay Paciano Mercado at ipinahayag ang ganito "Ang papel na ginampanan ni Paciano sa buhay ni Jose ay nangangailangan ng higit na atensiyon kaysa sa kaniyang dapat na matanggap". Ang artikulong ito ay naglalayon na bakasin ang kritikal at mapagpasiyang na papel ni Paciano sa kamulatan ng kaniyang nakababatang kapatid, kung papaano niya inihatid si Rizal sa kalagayan bilang isang pambansang bayani, at kung papaano nilandas ni Paciano ang isang ideolohiya at pagkilos pulitikal na kailanman ay hindi pinangahasang landasin ng kaniyang higit na tanyag na kapatid.

Si Paciano sa Panahon ng Liberalismo

Ang taon ng pag-aaral ni Paciano Mercado sa Colegio de San Jose ay napanahon sa pagbagsak ni Reyna Isabel II ng Espanya na naging dahilan sa pangingimbabaw ng liberalismo hindi lamang sa Espanya kundi maging sa Pilipinas. Ang panunungkulan ni Carlos Ma. de la Torre bilang gobernador heneral sa Filipinas ay nagbigay daan sa kaluwagan pulitikal, na-organisa at aktibong kumilos ang Komite ng mga Anak ng Bayan na binubuo ng mga Filipino at mga liberal na Espanyol, at ang pagsikat ng isang paring sekular na nagngangalang Jose Apolonio Burgos. Ang mga kaanib ng bagong gitnang uri ay naging agresibo na isulong ang interes na dinadala ng pangkat panlipunan na kanilang kinabibilangan, pangunahin dito ay usapin ng kanilang paghahangad ng kapantayan sa mga Espanyol na noon ay may monopolyo sa mga matataas na puwesto sa kolonyal na burukrasya at simbahan.

Pagkakataon o tadhana, na sa panahon ng pag-aaral ni Paciano Mercado ay nakasama niya si Burgos na manirahan sa ilalim ng iisang bubungan. Ang pagiging malapit ng dalawa ay mapapansin sa salaysay ni Dr. Paz Policarpio-Mendez. May pagkakataon na naisasama ni Paciano si Burgos sa pagbisita sa kaniyang mga kapatid na babae na nag-aaral din sa Maynila, gayundin may pagkakataon na bumisita si Burgos kasama si Jacinto Zamora sa bayan ng Calamba sa paanyaya ni Paciano upang dumalo ng piyesta at doon nakita ni Jose Burgos ang batang kapatid na lalaki ni Paciano na kaniyang kapangalan". Ang pagiging malapit ni Paciano at Burgos ay isang indikasyon lamang ng kanilang pagiging iisa ng opinyon at interes.
Tahimik man ang mga aklat kasaysayan sa lalim at antas ng kamalayan na naipunla ni Burgos kay Paciano, ngunit ang apelyidong Mercado bilang isang aktibistang mag-aaral ay napahanay sa mga pangalang Buencamino, Sanciangco, Mapa. Soriano, Tizon, Alejandro at iba pang mga anak ng nakakariwasang Filipino na kabilang Juventud Escolar Liberal na naging aktibo at nangahas na nagdaos ng demontrasyon ng mga mag-aaral sa Maynila (na hinihinalang lihim na pinamumunuan ni Burgos).

Masakit ang naging hagupit ng tadhana para kay Paciano, bago matapos ang 1871, muling nabalik ang mga reaksiyonaryo sa pamahalaan at sa unang buwan ng 1872 naganap ang Pag-aalsa sa Cavite at sa sumunod na buwan, Si Burgos, ang lalaking kaniyang kasama, kausap, at kapalagayan loob ay nilatiran ng hininga ng kaniyang mga hayagan at lihim na kaaway sa andamyo ng bitayan ng Bagumbayan.

Si Paciano Bilang Magsasaka

Ang pangyayari ng 1872 ay nagsilbing isang balakid sa pagpapatuloy ng edukasyon ni Paciano. Pagkatapos ng trahedya, iniwan niya ang paaralan at nagbalik sa Calamba upang pangasiwaan ang lupain na inuupahan ng kanilang pamilya mula sa mga prayleng Dominikano. Pagkatapos ng pagbitay sa GOMBURZA, ginugol ni Paciano ang kaniyang panahon sa pagsasaka ng kanilang inuupahang bukirin at higit sa lahat sa pagbubungkal ng higit na mapangakong sakahan - ang kaisipan ng kaniyang kapatid.

Sa pag-uwi ni Paciano sa Calamba, nagtagubilin ang kaniyang ama ukol sa dalawang salita na hindi maaring banggitin sa kanilang tahanan - Burgos at Cavite. Sa kabila ng pagbabawal, naandoon ang pagkakataon ng pakikipagkuwentuhan sa kaniyang nakakabatang kapatid at naitanim niya ang binhi ni Jose Burgos sa matalas na isipan ng kaniyang batang kapatid, pagkukuwentuhan na ganap na nagpabago ng kahahantungan ng ating kasaysayan - binuhay ni Paciano ang ideya ng kaniyang kaibigan at kasamang si Jose Burgos sa katauhan ng kaniyang nakakabatang kapatid na si Jose Rizal.

Ang Pagsubaybay sa Edukasyon

Isa si Paciano sa nakapansin sa talino ng kaniyang kapatid, marahil ang _eksepsiyonal_ na katalinuhang taglay nito ang nagtulak upang mahinuha ni Paciano na ang kaniyang batang kapatid ay mayroong mapagpasiyang papel na gagampanan sa kasaysayan. Kung mayroon mang naging malaking interes si Paciano para sa kay Rizal ay ang mabigyan ito ng tumpak at progresibong edukasyon.

Sa kasaysayan ng pag-aaral ni Rizal ay makikita na laging nakabuntot sa likuran ang anino ni Paciano sa likuran. Unang-una na sa kaniyang pagpapatala Jose Rizal sa paaralan ni Justiniano Aquino Cruz, na kaniya ring naging dating guro sa Bi_¤"an. Sa kolehiyo, mapapansin ang pagsama niya sa kaniyang kapatid upang magpatala sa Ateneo at ng hindi matanggap si Rizal dahilan sa pagiging huli sa patalaan at kaliitan, hiningi niya ang tulong ni Manuel Xerxes Burgos upang ito ay matanggap sa nasabing paaralan.

Sa pagtatapos ng kolehiyo, ang matinding pagtutol ng ina ni Rizal sa pag-aaral sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas ay sinalungat ni Paciano, maging si Rizal ay kaniyang sinabi "Ngunit ang aking kapatid (Paciano) ay isinama ako sa Maynila sa kabila ng luha ng aking ina". Pagkatapos ng ilang taon sa Unibersidad , si Paciano ay gumawa ng paraan upang lihim na makaalis si Rizal patungo sa Espanya upang magpatuloy ng pag-aaral, at sa pamamagitan ng pensiyon na ipinadadala ni Paciano ay nai-agdong ni Rizal ang kaniyang pag-aaral ng medisina at pilosopiya sa Europa.

Kung ano ang dahilan ng pagpapakasakit ni Paciano para sa edukasyon ni Rizal ay mapapansin na sa kaniyang mapagpahiwatig na sulat dito:

."Tandaan mo na ang pangunahing dahilan ng iyong pag-alis ay hindi ang pagpapabuti ng iyong sarili sa propesyong iyon (medesina), bagkus ay para sa higit na kapaki-pakinabang na bagay"

Ang Lalaki sa Likuran ng Isang Nobela

Ang kadakilaan ni Rizal ay matatagpuan sa kaniyang pagsulat ng isang nobelang panlipunan na pinamagatang Noli Me Tangere, ang nobela ay utang natin sa kakaibang katalinuhang pangliteratura ng may-akda, sa malinaw na paglalarawan at pagsasalamin ng mga sakit ng lipunang kolonyal sa kaniyang panahon. Gayundin nagpasalamat ang kasaysayan kay Ginoong Viola na nagpahiram ng kaukulang salapi upang mailigtas ang nobela mula sa disulusyonadong balakin ng may-akda na gawing panggatong sa apoy ang manuskrito ng nobelang nagpabago ng tunguhin ng kasaysayan, ngunit nalimutan ng kasaysayan na pasalamatan ang dalawang tunay na pinagkakautangan ng nobela. Una, ang lalaki na tunay na gumastos sa pagpapalimbag ng nobela - si Paciano. Ang salaping ginamit sa pagbayad sa utang ng pagpapalimbag ng nobela ay galing sa pagod at pawis ng nakatatandang kapatid ng may-akda at; Pangalawa, tahimik ang kasaysayan sa pagbanggit (at pagpapasalamat) na ang salaping ginamit sa pagpapalimbag ng Noli Me Tangere ay nanggaling sa mismong mga bunga ng lupa ng Filipinas na noon ay binubusabos ng mga mapagsamantalang dayuhan.

Ngunit ang pagbabayad ni Paciano mahal na presyo ng nobela ay hindi lamang sa sukatan ng salapi higit sa lahat, sa sakripisyo na kaniyang tiniis. Ang sulat ni Rizal kay Paciano ay nagpaliwanag ng ganito :

Ukol sa presyo ng libro, nagkamali ako sa aking pagtantiya, Akala ko sa 1500 na kopya ay gugugol lamang ako ng P200 ngunit sa mga limbagan ito ay aabot pala ito ng halagang P 1,500... Hindi ako humihiling ng ganitong halaga; Alam kong napakalaki nito para sa isang aklat na maaring maghatid sa inyo ng higit na kapighatian kaysa sa kaligayahan.

Sa pagsagot ni Paciano sa sulat ni Rizal ay nagpadala ito ng P 1,000, nais pa nga nito na magpadala ng higit ngunit ang asukal ay hindi pa nabibili Nagkaroon ng katuparan ang sinabi ni Rizal "Alam kong .... isang aklat na maaring maghatid sa inyo ng higit na kapighatian kaysa sa kaligayahan" dahilan sa ang pinakamalaking kabayaran na binata ni Paciano sa aklat na sinulat ng kaniyang batang kapatid ay ang paalisin ang pamilyang Rizal sa kanilang inuupahang sakahan ng mga Dominikano, at sunugin ang kanilang bahay sa Calamba at ipatapon si Paciano sa Mindoro, mula Septyembre 1890 hanggang Nobyembre 1891.

Ang Liberalismo tungo sa Radikalismo

Ang pagiging progresibo ni Paciano ay matatagpuan hindi lamang sa kaniyang pagsuporta sa kaniyang kapatid kundi maging sa kilusang propaganda, isa siya sa mga tagasuporta ng Diariong Tagalog, La Solidaridad at sa bandang huli ay tagasuporta ng Katipunan at isa sa mga aktibong nagpalaganap nito sa lalawigan ng Laguna.

Sa pagkabilanggo ng kaniyang kapatid noong 1896, si Paciano ay dinakip at ikinulong ng mga Espanyol at pisikal na pinahirapan ngunit ito ay kaniyang pinagtiisan upang hindi maisangkot ang kaniyang kapatid sa rebolusyon.

Ilang araw pagkatapos ng pagbitay kay Jose Rizal, natagpuan ni Paciano ang kaniyang sarili, kasama ng isa kaniyang kapatid na si Trinidad, at ng kaniyang hipag na si Josephine Bracken na binabagtas ang lalawigan ng Cavite na noon ay sentro ng Rebolusyong Filipino. Habang tinatawid nila ang tulay ng Zapote na hangganan ng Las Piñas at Cavite, mararandaman na hinuhubad na ng mga Rizal ang kanilang paniniwala sa reporma at niyapos na ang doktrina ng armadong pakikibaka para sa katubusan ng bayan mula sa kuko ng kolonyalismo.

Sa panahon ng himagsikang Filipino, si Paciano ay naglingkod bilang heneral ng rebolusyonaryong hukbo, nagpakita ng tapang, lideratura, at inpluwensiya sa tunguhin ng himagsikan. Ngunit ang pinakadakilang panahon ng kaniyang pamumuno ay naganap noong buwan ng Hunyo 1898. Isinalaysay ni Antonino Guevara y Mendoza sa kaniyang talatakdaan ang pangyayaring ito:

Pagkatapos ng anim na araw ng patuloy na paglusob, bumagsak ang Calamba, at ito ay kinubkob ni Senyor (Paciano) Rizal. Samantalang isinusuko ng mga talunang Espanyol ang kanilang mga sandata sa mga nagwaging Filipino, ang komandanteng Espanyol ay lumapit kay Senyor Rizal at nagwikang "Ako ay tiyak na babarilin ng aking mga nakakataas sa Maynila dahilan sa pagsuko. Ngunit, ang mga prayleng ito na inyo ngayong mga bihag ang maaring makapagligtas sa aking buhay. Nakikiusap ako na iligtas ang buhay ng mga prayle, at kung maari, ay mapanatili ko ang 11,000 piso na nasa aking pag-"iingat " Sumagot si Senyor Rizal na "Ingatan mo ang 11,000 piso at sumasang-ayon ako sa iyong pakiusap na iligtas ang buhay ng mga prayleng ito; sa kondisyon, na ipaalam mo sa kanila, na sila ang mga tunay na pumatay sa aking kapatid na si Doktor Rizal, at higit sa lahat, sila ang mga tunay na nasa likod ng pagwasak ng Calamba na aking tahanang bayan.""

Sa ganitong pagkakataon, ipinakita ni Paciano ang pagpapakumbaba sa harap ng tagumpay, at ang kahinahunan sa kabila ng silakbo at mapanuksong paghahangad ng paghihiganti, bagay na hindi niya nakita kahit kapiraso mula sa mga prayle noong pinipilipit ng garote ang leeg ni Burgos o nang tinutudla ng bala ang katawan ng kaniyang kapatid. Ipinakita ni Paciano na hindi siya ang halimaw na rebolusyonaryong kinatakutan ni Rizal ng kaniyang banggitin sa El Filibusterismo ang katagang A que la independencia, silos esclavos hoy, seran los tiranos de mañana - Para ano ang kalayaan, kung ang alipin ngayon, ang siyang maninikil bukas.

Pagkatapos ng pagkapanalo ng himagsikan laban sa Espanya, nakitang muli ni Paciano ang kaniyang sarili na muling nagtatangan ng sandata, sa pagkakataong ito hindi para matamo ang kalayaan, kung hindi sa mas malaking suliranin - ang preserbasyon ng kalayaan, na noon ay buong dahas na inaagaw ng mga Amerikano. Malakas ang bagong mananakop at sa proseso ng digmaan nadakip si Paciano, ngunit ang kaniyang katapatan sa kalayaang kaniyang ipinakipaglaban ay naipamalas niya ng tumanggi siyang maglingkod sa ilalim ng pamahalaan ng Amerika at pagpapakita ng delicadesa ng kaniyang tanggihan ang pensiyon na inaalok ng mga ito sa kaniyang mga matatandang magulang.

Ang Dakilang Filipino

Sa paglalagom ng artikulong ito, wala akong pangimi na angkinin na sa panahon ng sentenaryo ng kamartiran ni Jose Rizal ay hindi dapat na mawala sa ating paggunita ang nagawa ni Paciano. Kung tinitingala ng sambayanang Filipino si Jose Rizal sa pedestal ng mga bayani ito ay dahilan sa pagpaparaya ni Paciano ng kaniyang balikat upang magsilbing tuntungan para sa kadakilaan ng kaniyang nakababatang kapatid.

Si Jose Rizal mismo, sa kaniyang sulat kay Blumentritt ang nagbigay ng pinakamataas na parangal kay Paciano ng kaniyang sabihin dito na "Ang aking kapatid na si Paciano, ang pinakadakilang Filipino."

Mga Sanggunian:

"Ang lahat ay hiniram ng may akda, mula sa mga aklat sanggunian, ang tangi ko lamang maangkin ay ang mga kahinaan at kamalian.

1. Corpuz, Onofre D.: Roots of the Filipino Nation
2. Guerrero, Leon Ma.: The First Filipino
3. Guevara, Antonino y Mendoza: History of One the Initiators of the Filipino Revolution.
Isinalin ni Onofre D. Corpuz
4. Juaquin, Nick: Manila, My Manila
5. Mendez, Paz Policarpio: Adventure in Rizaliana
6. NHI: _Filipinos in History Volume II

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The Concept of Ki in Aikido

The concept of Ki in Aikido
A Literature survey
by Minhhuy Ho

Introduction: Ask a Chinese what is 'chi/qi' and you will get as many answers as you would asking an Aikidoka how to perform a kokyunage. A common answer is that chi refers to a particular mental and physical state that exhibits in a psychophysiological power associates with blood and breath. A chinese philosopher will talk about this microcosmical 'matter-energy' which is fundamental in forming and governing the universe. A traditional chinese physician, usually also a taoist by education, speaks about a microbiomaterial that circulates within the body, maintaining the living force that makes the body function. The chinese will probably accept any of these definitions in a 'matter-of-fact' manner and do not expect questions or disagreements concerning the meaning of chi. Of course this does not mean that they actually had a very accurate idea about the meaning of chi or that everybody knows exactly in what context one means when one talks about chi. In fact, the chinese probably means all of the above definitions, and more. This raises immediate problem for the western mind which makes clear distinctions between matter/mind, material/nonmaterial, physical/psychological/ physiological etc.. However one disagrees with the chinese blatant disregard for the cartesian dichotomy, this is in fact the way in which the chinese conceptualizes chi, or any other phenomena at all. Furthermore, they seems to be happy to trade off the analytical clarity for the imaginative richness.

When the chinese cosmic system which uses chi to explain the structure and function of virtually every phenomenon in the universe finally got transmitted to Japan in the seventh century, it had the shinto and tendai buddhist flavours added on. Unfortunately, or fortunately, the meaning of chi/ki did not get any clearer crossing the japanese sea. At any rate, from the oldest extant japanese work on traditional medicine, Ishopo by Tamba no Yasuyori, in the tenth century to modern works such as 'Qi: From the Analects to the New Science' by Maruyama Toshiaki, 'Qi: the Flowing body' by Harada Jiro one can see that both japanese and chinese traditional medicine share a basic conception of what it means to be fully human. Life is constituted by ki (in the sense of breath and energy), a force that manifests in respiration and that can be felt circulating within the body. Similarly, japanese drugs and concoctions are aimed specially at nourishing ki and enhancing its functioning.

Akido, a japanese martial art developed by master Mohirei Ueshiba earlier this century makes heavy use of the concept of ki. Aikido is one of the more spiritual martial arts and has been considered as 'moving zen'. The name Aikido means 'the way of harmony of ki'. Just exactly what is this ki that one supposes to harmonize with is a controversial topic among Aikidoka's. Some believes that the physical entity ki simply does not exist. Instead, the spirit, the intention, the bio-physico-psychological coordination through relaxation and awareness are concepts being used in the teaching. These Aikidoka's sometime tend to frown upon the philosophical/spiritual aspect of ki. Other Aikidoka's believe that ki does exist as a physical entity and can be transmitted through space. They, on the other hand, make use of concepts such as ki of the universe, extending ki etc.. By citing these two extremes, the author does not wish to imply that the 'truth' lies somewhere in between. But the fact of the matter is that there is a large portion of Aikidoka who are still, and no doubt will continue be, on their 'quest for ki'.

The task is not simple since many sensei's are reluctant to talk about ki. Those who do, do it in a very oriental way: full of metaphor, image and lack of clarity. The aim of this article is surveying the writting and teaching of Kaiso, his deshi's: Ueshiba, Tohei, Yamada, Shioda, Saito, Saotome, Nadeau, Dobson, Homa ... (listed in no particular order) to find out what they did mean when they mentioned the concept ki, or to find out whether one can come up with a definite answer at all. For the sake of simplicity, let's propose three simple definitions of ki:

Ki: the principle that governs the universe AND the individual, the cosmic truth.
Ki: the action from a particular state of mind and body that can have physical/psychological/physiological effect. This ki can be expressed, and hence, perceived through physical apprearance, behaviour, and body language.
Ki: similar to (2). However this ki can be expressed and perceived by means including but not limited to those listed in (2). One can see that from (1) to (3) the degree of abstract decreases while the physical component increases. The meaning of ki of course is not limited by the individual or combined definitions mentioned above.

Writings and Teachings of Saito, Yamada, Shioda, Homma, Nadeau and Dobson:Among the available Aikido literatures from Kaiso's deshi's, "Traditional Aikido" by Morihiro Saito sensei stands out as a classic. Nevertheless, in this five-volume work, the concept of ki is discussed only briefly: "Ki: the vital force of the body. Through Aikido training, the ki of a person can be drawn in increasing amount from the universe. In practice, ki is directed before body movement takes place." A short description of a series of exercises for ki flowing can be found in his later work "Aikido, its heart and appearance" where one "causes partner's ki to flow out (fluid)" and "calling out your partner's ki and linking it to yours". Yoshimitsu Yamada sensei, a marvelous Aikido technician, in "The New Aikido Complete" is even less specific about ki. He refers to ki as "the power of the spirit of the mind that we all possess but which we use only on rare occasion." There is no noticable mention of ki in the work of Gozo Shioda sensei, the founder of Yoshinkan Aikido.

These sensei's are accomplished Aikidoka's in every sense of the word. Saito sensei's profound knowledge about Aikido techniques especially his contribution to the jo, bokken kata's is well respected in Aikido and aiki-jitsu circles. Shioda sensei's flawless and spontaneous techniques can only be compared with the equilibrium and tranquility reflected in chinese landscape paintings. It is hardly possible that these masters, who studied with the master of ki himself, are ignorant of the importance of ki. One can hypothesize that these sensei's feel that the teaching of ki, whatever their definitions are, has no place in a technical manual and is best left unspoken. Andvanced students should experience and define the essence of the art themselves with the guidance of the sensei. This style of teaching, known as shinin (imprinting of the heart), is not foreign to the oriental. The saying "A special transmission outside the Scriptures, no dependence upon words and letters" sums up the fundamental of Zen teaching. As Shioda sensei wrote "They (martial arts) must not become mere intellectual exercises, the fundamental budo 'conduct' must not be treated lightly, and the 'way of technique' must not be neglected as a form of spiritual and physical training", he wished to emphasize the idea that the essence of Aikido - ki - would express itself to those who practice and follow basic techniques diligently. This sentiment seems also to be shared by Doshu in his interview with Stan Prannin.

The sincere and direct approach in "Aikido for Life" has made Homma sensei's book an excellent introduction to what it takes and what it tastes like to be an Aikidoka. Aikido for Life is not a technical manual per se, albeit several techniques and exercises were included, but rather a reflection on the physical and mental training process of Aikido. Homma sensei's book reflects his honest feeling about the art and the way it should be practiced. He performed an irimi to many conceptions and misconceptions in Aikido. Homma sensei devoted the whole second chapter to the discussion of ki, which he believes does not exist. "The word ki is made of two letters, 'k' and 'i' nothing more. Of course you know how difficult it is to undestand something that can only be imagined. Some try to describe this thing that doesn't exist by letting their explanations drift into the realm of mystery. The mystery of ki has been deceiving many students"

To Homma sensei, ki has no color, shape nor weight and cannot be shown by ki believer simply due to the fact that ki as a physical entity does not exist. Homma sensei himself however, does not come up with the definition of ki himself as it seems not to be within the scope of his book. Instead, he urges one to dicsover ki "through daily practice inside and outside the dojo" but not "adopting another's definition blindly." Aikido according to Homma sensei is the "training of the mind" which expresses itself through breathing. When one's mind, body movement, and breathing is in harmony with the surroundings, one experiences the true meaning of Aiki. In this aspect, Homma sensei's concept of ki seems to be similar to definition (2) mentioned above. Homma sensei credits several technical accomplishments such as 'unbendable arm', 'unliftable body' to consistent practice and rejects the contribution of the "mysterious power" of ki. However, he also credits the benefits of several Aikido exercises, such as nikkyo and kotegeashi wrist warm up, and practices such as open hand, back rolles to shiatsu (acupressure). This seems somewhat contradictory. The concepts of keiraku (chinese: jingluo, english: meridian), rokuzo (liuzang, six yin organs), roppu (liufu, six yang organs) mentioned in Homma sensei's book are those discovered/invented by chinese traditional medicine. From this perspective, shiatsu inherited its entire theoretical foundation from acupuncture. The concepts of channels existing in human (and animal) body and their associated ying and yang organs (which do not necessarily have the equivalence in western medicine) are unique to chinese traditional medicine. Their sole purpose is to circulate chi within the body. The chi mentioned here is a physical entity as defined earlier according to chinese traditional medicine. One cannot use these concepts without accepting their raison d'e^tre. It seems that Homma sensei has denied the existence of the physical aspect of ki in one context only to use it in another.

Among O sensei's first american deshi is Robert Nadeau sensei who came to study with the master in his late seventies. Nadeau sensei, being profficient in several martial arts, has profound impact on his students not only thought his super physical techniques but also his dynamic approach by way of harmoninzing physical and mental concepts, action and comtemplation. Since there is no literature available by Nadeau sensei, his teaching will be extracted from the works of two of his decorated deshi's : Richard Strozzi Heckler and George Leonard.

In "The Ultimate Athelete", Leonard sensei describes a typical Energy-Body workshop pioneered by Nadeau sensei. The workshop begins with the assumption that "a field of energy exists in and around each human body". This energy is ki, "a single manifestation that includes emanations that can be measured by our present science, plus other esoteric or metaphorical amanations". One of the exercise in the workshop is "sensing the energy body" where partners stand with arms extending towards each other. When one 'feels' the energy from one's partner, one is asked to move apart to find out how far away one can still sense the energy connection. It is also obvious from other exercises that Nadeau sensei's idea of ki includes definitions (2) and (3).

"The Anatomy of Changes" by Heckler sensei portrays his effort to utilize Aikido principles in psychotherapy. The book describes the hara as "a point two inches below the navel, as the center of gravity and the place where ki (or life energy) originates". One can "feel or imagine a warmth in this area" to center oneself. To "ground" oneself (feel the connection between the body and the ground), one extends ki by feeling or imagining one's energy as "a strong flowing current that moves from your belly through your pelvis and legs, deep into the earth". Similarly, "unbendable arm" is done by feeling or imagining that "a current of powerful energy flowing through and out of this arm for a distance of a thousand miles. Your arm is like a conduit for a limitless and far-reaching energy that effortlessly flows through it. When you start to feel tingling, vibrating, or streaming sensations in your body and arms, continue to relax, and allows these sensations to join the current that is flowing through your arm". Again, this way of conceptualizing ki has more overlap with definition (3) than (2).

Terry Dobson sensei received the mission from O sensei to spread the spirit of Aikido to his people when he was one of Kaiso's last uchi deshi's. His life was the proof for the fulfillment of that promise as he refers to himself as a "ki mechanic". His only written work left is "Aikido in Everyday Life" though he has "imprinted the hearts" of many by his teaching. In "Aikido in Everyday Life" Dobson sensei refers to the one point "where one should be living ... it is the 'organ' which can sense attack faster than the intellect." This one point, according to Dobson sensei, is the protective spirit, ki, which is employed in unraisable body exercise. But ki also is one's "connection to all life, time, and space; nowness; and energy". Throughout his life, Dobson sensei has been the mechanic for a more down-to-earth kind of ki. "Aikido in Everyday Life" was written to solve life conflicts by Aikido techniques. As he wrote "It is possible for a liar or a cheat to use Aiki or any of otherfive attacks to responses and aim for a 'kill' or a 'win' over somebody who has made the mistake of attacking him. But strange things begin to happen to people who become involved with Attack-tics ... even the most mean spirited of people begin to relinquish their grasp on their aggression, lose their anger, and reconnect with the living force". From his well known story "A Kind Word Turneth Away Wrath", one can see that the essence of Aikido according to Dobson sensei has a strong social implication. It seems that Dobson sensei's concept of ki covers all three definitions mentioned above.

References:W.-T. Chan, A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, Princeton University Press, 1973.
Y.-L. Fung, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, McMillan Press, 1966.
T. J. Kaptchuk, The Web that has no Weaver. Understanding Chinese Medicine, Congdon and Weed, New York, 1983.
W.-M. Tu, Confucian Thought, State University of New York Press, 1985.
S.-C. Huang, Chang Tsai's concept of Chi, Philosophy East and West, vol. 18, pp. 247, 1968.
Y. S. Kim, The Concept of Chi in Chu Hsi's philosophy, Philosophy East and West, vol. 34, 1984.
Y. Sakade, Longevity Techniques in Japan. Ancient Source and Contemporary Studies, in Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques, Eds. L. Kohn and Y. Sakade, Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1989.
Morihiro Saito, Traditional Aikido, vol I-V, Minato Research and Publications 1974.
Morihiro Saito, Aikido, its Heart and Appearance, Minato Research and Publications 1975.
Yoshimitsu Yamada, The New Aikido Complete, Carol Publishing Group 1981
Gozo Shioda, Dynamic Aikido, Kodansha Publishing 1968. Translator: Hamilton Jeffrey.
Stan Prannin in Aikido and the New Warrior, Eds. Richard Heckler and Goerge Leonard, North Atlantic Books 1990.
The Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, An Outline of Chinese Acupuncture, Foreign Langauges Press, 1975.
Felix Mann, Acupuncture. The Ancient Chinese Art of Healing and How it Works Scientifically, Vintage Books 1973.
Shizuto Masunaga with Wataru Ohashi, Zen and Shiatsu. How to Harmonize Yin and Yang for Better Health, Japan Publication 1977.
Toru Namikoshi, Shiatsu and Stretching, Japan Publication 1985.
George Leonard, The Ultimate Athelete. Revising Sports, Physical Education and the Body, The Viking Press 1975.
Richard Strozzi Heckler, The Anatomy of Change. East/West Approaches to Body/Mind Therapy, Shambhala Publication 1985.
Terry Dobson and Victor Miller, Aikido in Everyday Life, North Atlantic Books 1983.
Aikido Today Magazine, The Journal of the Martial Arts and Spiritual Discipline of Aikido, #25, vol. 6 1992/1993.

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Thursday, November 3, 2005

Council of Nicea

The Council of Nicea

When Constantine defeated Emperor Licinius in 323 AD he ended the persecutions against the Christian church. Shortly afterwards Christians faced a trouble from within: the Arian controversy began and threatened to divide the church. The problem began in Alexandria, it started as a debate between the bishop Alexander and the presbyter (pastor, or priest) Arius. Arius proposed that if the Father begat the Son, the latter must have had a beginning, that there was a time when he was not, and that his substance was from nothing like the rest of creation. The Council of Nicea, a gathering similar to the one described in Acts 15:4-22, condemned the beliefs of Arius and wrote the first version of the now famous creed proclaiming that the Son was "one in being with the Father" by use of the Greek word "homoousius."

How Controversial was the Arian Controversy?

There were some three hundred bishops gathered at the Council of Nicea from all around the world. Eusebius lists many of them and their country of origin in his writings. It should be remembered that many of those present had, because of the recent persecutions, suffered and had faced threat of death for their faith. These were not wishy-washy men. It might also be remarked, that they were extremely sensitive to details of doctrine. As evidence of this, the second major concern of the Council of Nicea was to address the hotly debated question of what the proper day was to celebrate the resurrection.

The bishops of the Council stopped their ears on hearing the words of Arius and immediately rejected his teaching as distant and alien from the belief of the Church. They tore to pieces a letter of Eusebius of Nicomedia containing Arius' teaching, as well as an Arian confession of faith (see the appendix on the Council of Nicea in Baker Book House's, "Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History").

Originally seventeen of those bishops gathered at the council were unwilling to sign the Creed penned by the Council, and all but three of these were convinced to sign by the end. It is thus apparent that the Arians were a distinct minority among the bishops. Initially there was some resistance to the Nicene Creed, not because of what it said but because of how it said it. Many objected to the use of the word "homoousias" in an official document because it was not used in Scripture, despite their agreement with the meaning it conveyed.

The Council interrogated Arius using Scripture, only to find that he had a new way of interpreting every verse they brought before him. Finally, they used the argument that Arius' view had to be wrong because it was new. Athanasius says, "But concerning matters of faith, they [the bishops assembled at Nicea] did not write: 'It has been decided,' but 'Thus the Catholic Church believes.' And thereupon confessed how they believed. This they did to show that their judgement was not of more recent origin, but was in fact of Apostolic times..." (Volume 1, Faith of the Early Fathers, p338). In this regard also, Athanasius askes rhetorically, "... how many fathers [in other words, the writings of the early Christians] can you cite for your phrases?" (Ibid, p325)

It must be concluded, then, that the controversy was between a great majority who held the belief that the doctrine expressed by the Nicene Creed was ancient and Apostolic, and a minority who believed that Arius' new interpretation of the faith was correct .

The Word Homoousious

The Nicene Creed introduced the word "homoousious" or "consubstantial" meaning "of one substance." This word was not invented at the Council. Eusebius writes that some of the "most learned and distinguished of the ancient bishops had made use of consubstantial in treating of the divinity of the Father and the Son" (See document E in the Appendix, Baker). We do not have the sources that Eusebius must have had regarding the use of this word. Today, the only source is Origen who used the word in what seems the orthodox way (Johannes Quastren, "Patrology," Volume 2, p78). However, this phrase of Eusebius stands as a witness to the existence of wider use.

The bishops assembled at Nicea were careful to explain how they used the word, and what it meant. This is because it had been misused by Paul of Samosta. Regarding this unorthodox usage, St. Hilary and St. Basil say that it was said to be "unfit to describe the relation between the Father and the Son" at a council that met in Antioch (Ibid, p14). Apparently Paul of Samosta applied the word in a manner that implied division of nature, as several coins are from the same metal (Baker, p21).

The Role of Constantine

The controversy greatly agitated Emperor Constantine, and he sent a letter to Arius and Alexander in an attempt to persuade them to lay aside their differences. He wrote, "This contention has not arisen respecting any important command of the law, nor has any new opinion been introduced with regard to the worship of God; but you both entertain the same sentiments, so that you may join in one communion. It is thought to be not only indecorous, but altogether unlawful, that so numerous a people of God should be governed and directed at your pleasure, while you are thus emulously contending with each other, and quarrelling about small and very trifling matters."

It has been suggested that because Constantine referred to the issue as "trifling" that he did not really understand it. Strangely, it is recorded in a letter by Eusebius of Caesarea that the Emperor suggested the key word "homoousious" that appears in the Nicene Creed. He says the Emperor explained the term as well, showing its difference from the heretical usage by Paul of Samosta. It has been speculated that the Emperor made his suggestion at the prompting of Hosius of Cordova, the Emperor's advisor and a man who was persecuted under Maximian.

Constantine did play an important role at the Council. Eusebius of Caesarea reports that he played an key part in calming, convincing, and bringing all to agreement on contested points. The account of Eusebius fairly glows in regard to the Emperor, and he is portrayed as a key figure. It is nowhere suggested, however, that he was permitted to vote with the bishops nor that he used any form of force to obtain an outcome.

It may be that the eloquence and glory of the Emperor had sway with some, however it should be remembered that he did eventually (years after the Council) support the Arian party. A few years after the Council of Nicea, Arius discovered a new way to interpret the word "homoousius" that agreed with his doctrines. He then asked to be readmitted to communion, but the Church refused. Arius then appealed to the Emperor. Emperor Constantine's favorite sister, Constantia, on her deathbed, implored Constantine to support Arius and he did so. A date was set for the forcing of the Church to readmit Arius, but while he was waiting for Constantine to arrive Arius stopped to relive himself and his bowels burst and he died. (See Arians of the 4th Century, Chapter III, Section II by John Henry Newman)

It is hard to imagine how a man who had supposedly argued with eloquence for the Nicene Creed and who supposedly formulated the key phrase and explained it would simply abandon it for a mere submission to the words and not the meaning of the Creed. It is also hard to imagine how the account of Eusebius can be reconciled to the Emperor's apparent failure to grasp the issue apparent in his letter. It is also hard to imagine how a man who had been such a humble servant of the Church at Nicea would attempt to force the Church to accept his decisions at this later date. It seems reasonable on these grounds to suppose that Eusebius of Caesarea wrote a less than accurate account designed to give credit and flattery to the emperor.

Nor was Constantine the last emperor to side with the Arians. Athanasius writes concerning this in "The Monks' History of Arian Impiety' (AD 358) saying, "When did a decision of the Church receive its authority from the emperor?" and "never did the fathers seek the consent of the emperor for them [councilar decrees of the Church], nor did the emperor busy himself in the Church." He goes on to say that the heretics banded with the emperor. (See Faith of the Early Fathers, Volume I, by William Jurgens).

The Church was willing to accept the help of an emperor, to listen to what he had to say, but not to accept the rule of an emperor in matters of faith. However one describes the role of Constantine at the Council of Nicea, it must be remembered that the Creed of Nicea expressed what the great majority of bishops at the council found to be traditional, Biblical, and orthodox of the Christian faith, a faith in which they believed so firmly that they were willing to die for it.

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Friday, September 2, 2005


When the individuated, embodied part of Spirit, the Soul, has completed what it set out to accomplish in a lifetime, it has three basic options: take on a new life goal (Reincarnation-in-Same-Body), die, or walk out. If the Soul chooses to walk out, an agreement is made with another Soul to walk-in and continue the embodiment. This is not possession. It is not a requirement that a person be a walk-in to ascend. It is simply an individual agreement and another way of entering onto the planet.

The walk-in experience is so very individual that it’s difficult to give a definitive description. Here is an overview of possible experiences.Usually, there is a "try-on" period of a few days or weeks or months when the new soul tries on the body before the actual transfer. The personality may or may not be aware as it often occurs while sleeping, meditating or channeling. There may be a feeling of someone hanging around or loss of time.

The new Soul is getting the feel of the body. Remember, some beings coming in have never been in physical bodies and may need to get the feel of being so densified. The new Soul is also reviewing the DNA encodements and the existing energy patterns stored in all of the bodies and deciding what to keep or release.Sometimes, right before a walk-in, the personality may feel a sense of completion with the lifetime. This may manifest as extreme fatigue, severe depression, or suicidal feelings. This is the personality’s way of interpreting that a transfer is about to occur.The personality may or may not be conscious during the actual walk-in. If unconscious, the transfer often occurs during a deep trance or sleep state. On occasion, the Soul chooses to manifest trauma to the body such as: accident, illness, coma, concussion, or emotional shock. This allows the new Soul to more quickly integrate to a deeper level. Because all of the body’s systems are disrupted from the habitual patterns by trauma they are, therefore, more receptive to the new Soul. In the past, this was the most common route the two Souls would undertake for the transfer of energy. Now, the walk-in process is somewhat easier for several reasons. Everyone on the planet has begun the Lightbody mutation. For a walk-in, this means that the physical body is better able to accept a new energy at the cellular level and the personality can adapt to a new identity. Also, now there are support systems and integration services for walk-ins so the rationale of changing through trauma is unnecessary. More and more walk-ins are fully conscious through the whole transfer.At the time of the walk-in, the old spiritual, mental and emotional bodies are released with the original occupant and the new spiritual, mental and emotional bodies are attached to the physical one. New patterns and emotions are brought into the etheric blueprint bodies and some old patterns are released. The etheric and physical bodies are what keep some continuity.The overall feeling for the previous life experiences is one of neutrality. Most walk-ins retain life facts without emotional attachments. Memories of the previous Soul’s experiences are much like watching a movie with the emotional sound turned off. This neutrality often means a feeling of detachment from emotionally significant people such as: mate, children, parents, and friends. The old issues, unresolved situations and personal difficulties of the previous incarnee are often easy for the new walk-in to handle. They are likely to leave the unsatisfying marriage or unfulfilling job that the previous occupant could not resolve.Much to the dismay of the people around them, a new walk-in often goes through strong changes in personality. The personality is completely malleable at this time and the new soul tries on new character traits until a good combination to serve the new life goal is found. Also, changes in personal preferences are common such as liking different foods, colors, clothes and lifestyle than the original occupant.

A new walk-in is like a newborn baby. Because the emotional and mental bodies are "new", they have not yet been imprinted from the environment. Like a baby, a walk-in is a sponge for the emotions, traits and beliefs of the people around them. It is vitally important that a new walk-in choose carefully the people they spend time with for they will be imprinted with those people’s qualities and biases, good and bad.The most difficult situation for a new walk-in is to be around people who pull on them to be or be like the previous incarnee. This can be very tough because those people were usually emotionally significant to the previous soul, i.e., mate, parents, family and friends. They may not realize or believe that a transfer of Souls has occurred. When these well-meaning people project their emotions and pictures of the old occupant on to a walk-in, an overlay of the old energy called "ghosting" occurs in the new energy bodies. Clairvoyantly, it looks like a double image. This is so stressful to the physical body and personality that the walk-in may become ill or feel quite crazy.The bottom line in the process of the integration is the physical body. Most of the body’s consciousness has nothing in its cellular memory banks for the walk-in experience except, "I’m dying." If the body strongly believes that it is dying, it may begin to shut down the entire system. Also, the body may reject the new Soul at a cellular level, much like it can reject a new heart or liver. This usually manifests as rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and the pain, swelling and inflammation can be sudden and severe. In extreme cases, partial paralysis can occur. The other common manifestation of body rejection is severe allergic reactions to food, soaps, clothes, plants, household cleansers, the environment, and yourself. Sometimes, usually in the very beginning, a new walk-in may have epilepsy-like seizures as the brain waves and electromagnetic functions of the brain change.Often, a walk-in experiences psychic or multi-dimensional openings as the 7th (Crown) chakra is usually stuck open from the transfer. Sudden opening may make a person feel crazy, disoriented or spacey. They may be channeling constantly and have some difficulty knowing their own energy. As strange as it may seem, it is really helpful for a new walk-in to wear hats to protect their crown chakra.Like a child, there is often an innate spirituality to a walk-in. This spirituality assists in the integration process as a person may turn to prayer or meditation to sort out all of the "Who am I?" questions and give the body a rest.Most physical and personality symptoms of rejection and disorientation pass very quickly with a little integration. But the process of releasing the dysfunctionality and obsolete pictures of reality of the previous occupant may take years. Strong grief states are common as the body releases these old energies. The trick is not to resist and express the grief fully as it comes up. Then it seems to pass quickly.Most walk-ins have a new life goal and bring with them new skills and abilities to assist them in accomplishing it. Also, usually an embodiment is chosen that has skills the new soul can use toward their mission.If a walk-in was unconscious, there is usually the feeling, "I have something very important to accomplish—if only I could remember what it is." As frustrating as this feeling can be, having a veil over the life goal for a year or so can be a blessing. It allows time for integration of the body, personality, and the lifetime.

When a walk-in is a fully conscious one, he or she often hits the ground running, so to speak. Usually, the veil over the live work is not present so they may not take the time to integrate the body. Often, "burnout" occurs and they may become sick at about the one-year point.Some walk-ins never know what really happened—just that they went through a dramatic life change. The range of awareness spans across the board. Some Souls may just have a major karma that they wish to complete. Others, perhaps coming in from other dimensions or universes, may be here to assist in this planet’s transition to Light. There are many reasons for a Soul to walk-in but the main one is that it is usually quicker to integrate a new Soul into a new body than it is to grow a body from scratch.Each walk-in experience has its own unique qualities. A person may experience all, part, or none of the things described here.The one thing that walk-ins have found necessary is to be very gentle with their physical bodies. The body is not a vehicle but a co-creative partner in our life experiences. It takes time for the physical body to work through feelings of dying, rejection, abandonment and grief. But when the body consciousness understands that the walk-in Soul consciously chose this body, loves this body, and is willing to work as a partner with this body, then miracles can happen.Within the first three years it is an asset for all walk-ins to have some integration assistance

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Monday, August 15, 2005

Freaking Globe Telecom Management

Damn i still can't stop thinking about the meeting I attended last Friday. Apparently the agenda was about us taking the place of the 5 people who resigned at Netmos, but it ended up into a fucking that was going nowhere. To sum it up what came up was that he was asking us to just tell before hand if we will resign as well so he can at least prepare for replacements.....fuck you...

5 people resigned...5 including their immediate superior who just got promoted as manager...let's read between the lines...besides their job being in demand abroad which should be one of the factor of leaving another serves as a catalyst....GROWING UNREST.

Most if not all are complaning of the dumb commands being given by this fucking manager. He has been desperate trying to put most of the I.S. into shifting duty even if it would just clearly be a was of resource.

Our group is now in the spotlight not because of the great work we have done which has gone un-noticed but because ignorant people on top think that our group is "UNIMPORTANT". Word goes around that our group is being considered to be dissolved...imagine that OUR GROUP...NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION...what the is all this about?

It all started late 2001 when a handfull of managers and engineers launched a signature campaign to oust the present fucker on top....should I name him...nahh he knows who the fuck he is. People started to sign and with this operations was officially divided into the signees and the fucking boss' dogs. On the front line of this was our then manager...can you see the connection?

The meetings ended up in giving the fuck top guy a chance...which was to me was a bad compromise, for the next couple of years he has been creating his empire hiring people from outside who are either a "PAL" of his or someone he knew he can conrtrol and putting them into top positions, and then there came the re-organization this was where the put all his top dogs to report directly to him. Worst he was promoted to AVP....the fucking asshole now has all the power and control he wanted.

As of this writing the only group remaining who prominently joined the campaign to oust him is US and now we are facing a blank wall...we are the last of those who opposed him and now he can do what he was aching to do for the last 3 years.

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Wednesday, August 10, 2005

A Guide to Hypnotism

A Guide to Hypnotism


Hypnotism, contrary to common beleif, is merely state when your mind and body are In a state of relaxation and your mind is open to positive, or cleverly worded Negative, influences. It is not a trance where you: > are totally influencable. > cannot lie. > a sleep which you cannot wake up from without help. This may bring down your hope somewhat, but, hypnotism is a powerful for self help, And/or mischeif.

! Your subconcious mind !

before going in further, i'd like to state that hypnotism not only is great in the way That it relaxes you and gets you (in the long run) what you want, but also that it Taps a force of incredible power, beleive it or not, this power is your subconcious Mind. The subconcious mind always knows what is going on with every part of your Body,

Every moment of the day. It protects you from negative influences, and retains the Power to slow your heartbeat down and stuff like that. The subconcious mind holds Just about all the info you would like to know about yourself, or, in this case, the Person you will be hypnotising. There are many ways to talk to your subconcious And have it talk back to you. One way is the ouja board, no its not a spirit, merely the Minds of those who are using it. Another, which i will discuss here, is the pendulum Method. Ok, here is how it goes. First, get a ring or a washer and tie it to a thread a Little longer than half of your forearm. Now, take a sheet of paper and draw a big Circle in it. In the big circle you must now draw a crosshair (a big +). Now, put the Sheet of paper on a table. Next, hold the thread with the ring or washer on it and Place it (holding the thread so that the ring is 1 inch above the paper swinging) in the Middle of the crosshair. Now, swing the thread so the washer goes up and down, say To yourself the word "yes" now, do it side to side and say the word "no". Do it counter Clockwise and say "i don't know". And lastly, do it clockwise and say "i dont want to Say." Now, with the thread back in the middle of the crosshair, ask yourself questions And wait for the pendulum to swing in the direction for the answer. (yes, no, i dont Know or i dont wanna say...). Soon, to your amazement, it will be answering questions Like anything... Let the pendulum answer, dont try.. When you try you will never get An answer. Let the answer come to you.

! How to induce hypnotism !

Now that you know how to talk to your subconcious mind, i will now tell you how To guide someone into hypnosis. Note that i said guide, you can never, hynotise Someone, they must be willing. Ok, the subject must be lying or sitting in a Comfortable position, relaxed, and at a time when things arent going to be Interrupted. Tell them the following or something close to it, in a peaceful, Monotinous tone (not a commanding tone of voice)

Note: light a candle and place it somewhere where it can be easily seen.
Take a deep breath through your nose and hold it in for a count of 8. Now, through Your mouth, exhale completely and slowly. Continued breathing long, deep, breaths Through your nose and exhaling through your mouth. Tense up all your muscles very Tight, now, counting from ten to one, release them slowly, you will find them very Relaxed. Now, look at the candle, as you look at it, with every breath and passing Momement, you are feeling increasingly more and more peaceful and relaxed. The Candles flame is peaceful and bright.

As you look at it i will count from 100 down, as a count, your eyes will become more And more relaxed, getting more and more tired with each passing moment." Now, count down from 100, about every 10 numbers say "when i reach xx your eyes (or You will find your eyes) are becoming more and more tired." Tell them they may close Their eyes whenever they feel like it. If the persons eyes are still open when you get to 50 then instead of saying

"your eyes will.."
Say "your eyes are...".

When their eyes are shut say the following. As you lie (or sit) here with your eyes Comfortably close you find yourself relaxing more and more with each moment and Breath.

The relaxation feels pleasant and blissful so, you happily give way to this wonderful Feeling. Imaginge yourself on a cloud, resting peacefully, with a slight breeze Caressing your body. A tingling sensasion begins to work its way, within and without Your toes, it slowly moves up your feet, making them warm, heavy and relaxed. The Cloud is soft and supports your body with its soft texture, the scene is peaceful and Absorbing, the peacefulness absorbs you completely...

The tingling gently and slowly moves up your legs, relaxing them. Making them warm And heavy. The relaxation feels very good, it feels so good to relax and let go. As the Tingling continues its journey up into your solar plexus, you feel your inner Stomach become very relaxed. Now, it moves slowly into your chest, making your Breathing relaxed as well. The feeling begins to move up your arms to your Shoulders, making your arms heavy and relaxed as well. You are aware of the total Relaxation you are now experiencing, and you give way to it. It is good and peaceful, The tingling now moveves into your face and head, relaxing your jaws, neck, and Facial muscles, making your cares and worries float away. Away into the blue sky as You rest blisfully on the cloud....

If they are not responsive or you think they (he or she..) Is going to sleep, then add in a "...always concentrating upon my voice, ingoring all other sounds. Even though Other sounds exsist, they aid you in your relaxation..." They should soon let out a Sigh as if they were letting go, and their face should have a "woodeness" to it, Becoming featurless... Now, say the following ".... You now find yourself in a hallway, The hallway is peaceful and nice. As i count from 10 to 1 you will imagine yourself Walking further and further down the hall. When i reach one you will find yourself Where you want to be, in another, higher state of concious and mind. (count from ten To one)....." Do this about three or four times. Then, to test if the subject is under Hypnosis or not, say....

"...you feel a strange sensation in your (arm they write with) arm, the
Feeling begins at your fingers and slowly moves up your arm, as it moves through Your arm your arm becomes lighter and lighter, it will soon be so light it will ..... Becoming lighter and lighter which each breath and moment..."

Their fingers should begin to twitch and then move up, the arm following, now my Friend, you have him/hep in hypnosis. The first time you do this, while he/she is under Say good things, like: "your going to feel great tomorrow" or "every day in every way You will find yourself becoming better and better".. Or some crap like that... The more They go under, the deeper in hypnosis they will get each time you do it.

! What to do when hypnotised !

When you have them under you must word things very carefully to get your way. You cannot simply say... Take off your clothes and fuck the pillow. No, that would Not really do the trick. You must say something like.... "you find your self at home, in Your room and you have to take a shower (vividly describe their room and whats Happening), you begin to take off your clothes..." Now, it cant be that simple, you must Know the persons house, room, and shower room. Then describe things vividly and Tell them to act it out (they have to be deeply under to do this...). I would just suggest That you experiment a while, and get to know ho; to do things.

! Waking up !

Waking up is very easy, just say.. "...as i count from 1 to 5 you will find yourself Becoming more and more awake, more and more lively. When you wake up you will Find yourself completely alive, awake, and refreshed. Mentally and physically, Remembering the pleasant sensation that hypnosis brings... Waking up feeling like a New born baby, reborn with life and vigor, feeling excellent. Remembering that next Time you enter hypnosis it will become an ever increasing deeper and deeper state Than before.

1- you feel energy course throughout your limbs. 2- you begin to breathe deeply, stirring. 3- begining to move more and more your eyes open, bringing you up to full concious. 4- you are up,up, up and awakening more and more. 5- you are awake and feeling great."

And thats it! You now know how to hypnotise yourself and someone else. You will Learn more and more as you experiment.

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anarchy essay

Anarchy: a pamphlet
By Errico Malatesta

Anarchy is a word that comes from the Greek, and signifies, strictly speaking, "without government": the state of a people without any constituted authority.

Before such an organization had begun to be considered possible and desirable by a whole class of thinkers, so as to be taken as the aim of a movement (which has now become one of the most important factors in modern social warfare), the word "anarchy" was used universally in the sense of disorder and confusion, and it is still adopted in that sense by the ignorant and by adversaries interested in distorting the truth.

We shall not enter into philological discussions, for the question is not philological but historical. The common interpretation of the word does not misconceive its true etymological signification, but is derived from it, owing to the prejudice that government must be a necessity of the organization of social life, and that consequently a society without government must be given up to disorder, and oscillate between the unbridled dominion of some and the blind vengeance of others.

The existence of this prejudice and its influence on the meaning that the public has given to the word is easily explained.

Man, like all living beings, adapts himself to the conditions in which he lives, and transmits by inheritance his acquired habits. Thus, being born and having lived in bondage, being the descendant of a long line of slaves, man, when he began to think, believed that slavery was an essential condition of life, and liberty seemed to him impossible. In like manner, the workman, forced for centuries to depend upon the goodwill of his employer for work, that is, for bread, and accustomed to see his own life at the disposal of those who possess the land and capital, has ended in believing that it is his master who gives him food, and asks ingenuously how it would be possible to live, if there were no master over him?

In the same way, a man whose limbs had been bound from birth, but who had neverless found out how to hobble about, might attribute to the very bands that bound him his ability to move, while, on the contrary, they would diminish and paralyze the muscular energy of his limbs.

If then we add to the natural effect of habit the education given to him by his master, the parson, the teacher, etc., who are all interested in teaching that the employer and the government are necessary, if we add the judge and the policeman to force those who think differently -- and might try to propagate their opinion -- to keep silence, we shall understand how the prejudice as to the utility and necessity of masters and governments has become established. Suppose a doctor brought forward a complete theory, with a thousand ably invented illustrations, to persuade the man with bound limbs that, if his limbs were freed, he could not walk, or even live. The man would defend his bands furiously and consider anyone his enemy who tried to tear them off.

Thus, if it is believed that government is necessary and that without government there must be disorder and confusion, it is natural and logical to suppose that anarchy, which signifies absence of government, must also mean absence of order.

Nor is this fact without parallel in the history of words. In those epochs and countries where people have considered government by one man (monarchy) necessary, the word "republic" (that is, the government of many) has been used precisely like "anarchy," to imply disorder and confusion. Traces of this meaning of the word are still to be found in the popular languages of almost all countries.

When this opinion is changed, and the public are convinced that government is not necessary, but extremely harmful, the word "anarchy," precisely because it signifies "without government," will become equal to saying "natural order, harmony of needs and interests of all, complete liberty with complete solidarity."

Therefore, those are wrong who say that anarchists have chosen their name badly, because it is erroneously understood by the masses and leads to a false interpretation. The error does not come from the word, but from the thing. The difficulty which anarchists meet in spreading their views does not depend upon the name they have given themselves, but upon the fact that their conceptions strike as all the inveterate prejudices which people have about the function of government, or "the state," as it is called.

Before proceeding further, it will be well to explain this last word (the "State") which, in our opinion, is the real cause of much misunderstanding.

Anarchists generally make use if the word "State" to mean all the collection of institutions, political, legislative, judicial, military, financial, etc., by means of which management of their own affairs, the guidance of their personal conduct, and the care of ensuring their own safety are taken from the people and confided to certain individuals, and these, whether by usurpation or delegation, are invested with the right to make laws over and for all, and to constrain the public to respect them, making use of the collective force of the community to this end.

In this case the word "State" means "government," or, if you like, it is the abstract expression of which government is the personification. Then such expressions as "Abolition of the State," or "Society without the State," agree perfectly with the conception which anarchists wish to express of the destruction of every political institution based on authority, and of the constitution of a free and equal society, based upon harmony of interests, and the voluntary contribution of all to the satisfaction of social needs.

However, the word "State" has many other meanings, and among these some that lend themselves to misconstruction, particularly when used among men whose sad social position has not afforded them leisure to become accustomed to the subtle distinction of scientific language, or, still worse, when adopted treacherously by adversaries, who are interested in confounding the sense, or do not wish to comprehend it. Thus the word "State" is often used to indicate any given society, or collection of human beings, united on a given territory and constituting what is called a "social unit," independently of the way in which the members of the said body are grouped, or of the relations existing between them. "State" is used also simply as a synonym for "society." Owning to these meanings of the word, our adversaries believe, or rather profess to believe, that anarchists wish to abolish every social relation and all collective work, and to reduce man to a condition of isolation, that is, to a state worse than savagery.

By "State" again is meant only the supreme administration of a country, the central power, as distinct from provincial or communal power, and therefore others think that anarchists wish merely for a territorial decentralization, leaving the principle of government intact, and thus confounding anarchy with cantonical or communal government.

Finally, "State" signifies "condition, mode of living, the order of social life," etc., and therefore we say, for example, that it is necessary to change the economic state of the working classes, or that the anarchical State is the only State founded on the principles of solidarity, and other similar phrases. So that if we say also in another sense that we wish to abolish the State, we may at once appear absurd or contradictory.

For these reasons, we believe that it would be better to use the expression "abolition of the State" as little as possible, and to substitute for it another, clearer, and more concrete --"abolition of government."


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Thursday, August 4, 2005



Been such a boring day so I decided to pay these sights a visit...I have had an account with these so called social networking pages for I will and I noticed how my friends lists have grown ( hehehe).

Looking at all those pretty faces...faces/people I would never be able to approach personally...even if i have my freaking life on the line ( what a big loser... =(... )

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Wednesday, August 3, 2005

First day of being 30

First day of being 30

never thought it would feel this strange, i've lived for a full 3 decades now and i have become everything but what i always dreaded to be. I'm starting to realize that i'am now officially a member of the "rat race".

Getting up everyday to work and going home afterward...the cycle seems endless. I long for the wild days....parties....drinks, back then everything seems to come easy, no hassles and almost no worries.

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Monday, August 1, 2005

ThE PhiLiPPiNeS iS.....

50. where the most happening places is not where the party is. Instead it's where the gang wars happen, where women strip and where the people overthrow a president.
49. where even doctors, lawyers and engineers are unemployed.
48. where everyone has his personal ghost story.
47. where mountains like Makiling and Banahaw are considered as holy places.
46. where everything can be forged.
45. where the school is considered the second home and the mall considered as third.
44. where Starbucks coffee is more expensive than gas.
43. where every street has a basketball court and every town only has one public school.
42. where all kinds of animals are edible.
41. where people speak all kinds of languages, and still call it Tagalog.
40. where students pay more money than they will earn afterwards.
39. where call center employees earn more money than teachers and nurses.
38. where driving 4kms can take as much as 4hours.
37. where flyovers bring you from the freeway to the side streets.
36. where the tourist spots is where Filipinos do not (or cannot) go.
35. where the personal computer is mainly used for games and Friendster.
34. where all 13 year olds are alcoholic.
33. where colonial mentality is dishonestly denied!
32. where 4am is not even considered bed time yet.
31. where people can pay to defy the law.30. where everything is spoofed.
29. where even the poverty-stricken get to wear Ralph Lauren and Tommy Hilfiger!
28. where honking of car horns is a way of life.
27. where being ! called a bum is never offensive.
26. where flood waters take up more than 90 percent of the streets during the rainy season.
25. where everyone has a relative abroad who keeps them alive.
24. where crossing the street involves running for your dear life.
23. where wearing your national colors make you "baduy".
22. where billiards is a sport, and darts is a bar game.
21. where even the poverty-stricken have the latest cell phones. (gsm-galing sa magnanakaw)20. where insurance does not work.
19. where water can only be classified as tap and dirty... clean water is for sale (35pesos/gallon).
18. where the church governs the people and where the government makes the people pray for miracles. (AMEN TO THAT!)
17. where University of the Philippines is where all the weird people go.Ateneo is where all the nerds go. La Salle is where all the Chinese go.College of Saint Benild! e is where all the stupid Chinese go, and Universityof Asia and the Pacific is where all the irrelevantly rich people go.
16. where fastfood is a diet meal.
15. where traffic signs are merely suggestions not regulations.
14. where all the trees in the city are below 6 ft.
13. where being held up is normal. It happens to everyone.
12. where kids dream of becoming pilots, doctors and basketball players.
11. where rodents is a normal house pet.
10. where the definition of traffic is the 'non-movement' of vehicles.
9. where the fighter planes of the 1940's are used for military engagements, and the new fighter planes are displayed in museums.
8. where Nora Aunor is an acclaimed actress and Boy Abunda is the best talk show host.
7. where cigarettes and alcohol are a necessity, and where the lottery is a commodity.
6. where soap operas tell the realities of life and where the news provides the drama.
5. where actors make the rules and where poli! ticians provide the entertainment. (kung gusto mo mapikon, watch the news)
4. where finding a deer on the road will be a phenomenon. (may deer dito? seryoso kayo?)
3. where people can get away with stealing trillions of pesos, but not for a thousand.
2. where being an hour late is still considered as punctual. (grabe talaga 'to!)
1. where everyone wants to leave the country! (ang saya-saya!)

Why be a plain pandesal when you can be ensaymada espesyal? :-)

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